Zoology Optional Paper HCS mains syllabus - Baljit Dhaka
Baljit Dhaka
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Zoology Optional Paper HCS mains syllabus

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Zoology optional paper HCS mains syllabus

HCS Syllabus: Zoology HCS Mains Optional Syllabus

HPSC HCS mains optional subject syllabus


1. Non-Chordata

1. A general survey, classification and relationship of the various phyla and their subdivision upto class.

2. Protozoan: Study of the structure and life history of Paramaccium, Monocyotis, malarial parasite,
Trypanosoma. Locomotion, nutrition and reproduction in Protozoa.

3. Porifera: Canal system, skeleton and reproduction.

4. Coelenterata: Structure and life history of Obelia and Aurelia, Polymorphism in Hydrozoa, coral
formation, metagenesis.

5. Helminths: Structure and life history of Fasciola, Taenia and Ascaris. Parasitic adaptation. Helminths
in relation to man.

6. Annelida: Earthworm and leech. Coelom and metamerism, modes of life in polychaetes.

7. Arthropoda: Cockroach, larval forms and parasitism in Crustacea, respiration in arthropods, social life
and metamorphosis in insects. Importance of Peripatus.

8. Mollusca: Pila, oyster culture and pearl formation.

9. Echinodermata-General organisation, affinities of Echinodermata.

2. Protochordata

1. General organisation and characters, outline classification and inter-relationship of protochordate with

2. Neoteny and retrogressive metamorphosis.

3. Chordata

1. A general study of the comparative account of the various systems of vertebrates.

2. Locomotion, migration and respiration in fishes; affinities of Dipnoi.

3. Origin of Amphibia; anatomical peculiarities and affinities of urodele and Apoda.

4. Origin of Reptiles; adaptive radiation in reptiles; fossil reptile; poisonous and non-poisonous snakes of
India; poison apparatus of snakes.

5. Origin of birds; aerial adaptation and migration of birds.

6. Origin of mammals; dentition and skin derivatives in mammals; distribution, structural peculiarities and
phylogenetic relations of Prototheria and Metatheria.

4. Ecology

1. Environment: Abiotic factors and their role. Biotic factors–Intra and interspecific relations.

2. Animal: Organisation at population and community levels, ecological successions.

3. Ecosystem: Concept, components, fundamental operation, energy flow, biogeochemical, cycles, food
chain and trophic levels.

4. Adaptation in freshwater, marine and terrestrial habitats.

5. Pollution in air, water and soil.

6. Wildlife in India and its conservation.

5. Ethology

1. General survey of various types of animals behaviour.

2. Role of hormones and pheromones in behaviour.

6. Biostatistics
Methods of sampling, frequency distribution and measures of central tendency, standard deviation, standard error and standard deviance, correlation and regression and Chisquare and t-test.

7. Economic Zoology

1. Parasitism, commensalism and host-parasite relationship.

2. Parasitic protozoans, helminths and insects of man and domestic animals.

3. Insect pests of wheat, paddy and sugarcane and stored products.

4. Beneficial insects.

5. Pisciculture and induced breeding (carps only).


1. Cell Biology
Structure and function of cell and cytoplasmic constituents. Structure of nucleus. Plasma membrane mitochondria, golgibodies, endo-plasmic reticulum and ribosomes. Cell division (mitosis and meiosis). Watson-Crick models of DNA. Replication of DNA. Genetic code. Protein synthesis. Cell differentiation.

2. Genetics
Mendelian laws of inheritance. Recombination linkage and linkage maps. Multiple allels. Mutation (natural and induced). Mutation and evolution. Chromosomal aberrations : structural rearrangements, aneuploidy and polyploidy. Cytoplasmic inheritance. Regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Genes and diseases. Eugenics.

3. Evolution and Systematics
Origin of life. History of evolutionary through Lamarck and his works, Darwin and his works, sources and nature of organic variation. Natural selection. Hardy-Weinberg Law. Cryptic and warning colouration mimicry. Isolating mechanisms and their role. Concept of species and subspecies, principles of classification. Zoological nomenclature. Fossils, outline of geological eras, phylogeny of horse, origin and evolution man, principles and theories of the continental distribution of animals.

4. Biochemistry
Structure of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids, glycolysis and krebs cycle, oxidation and reduction, oxidative phosphorylation, energy conservation and release ATP, ? oxidation of fatty acids, structure and functions of cholesterol, steroid hormones. Types of enzymes, mechanism of enzyme action, immunoglobulin and immunity. Hormons, their classification, biosynthesis and functions.

5. Physiology
Physiology with special reference to mammals. Composition of blood, blood groups in man, coagulation, oxygen and carbondioxide transport, haemoglobin, breathing and its regulation. Nephron and urine formation, acid base balance and osmoregulation. Mechanism of conduction of nerve impulse along axon and across synapes, neurotransmitters. Types of muscles, ultrastructures and mechanism of contraction of skeletal muscle. Role of salivary gland, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands in digestion, absorption of digested food, nutrition and balanced diet of man. Mechanism of action of steriod and peptide hormones, role of hypothalamus, pituitary thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, adrenal, testis ovary and pineal organs and their inter-relationships. Physiology of reproduction in humans.

6. Embryology
Gametogenesis, fertilization, types of eggs, cleavage, development up to gastrulation in frog and chick. Fate maps of frog and chick, meta-morphosis in frog. Formation and fate of extra embryonic membranes in chick. Formation of amnion allantois and types of the placenta in mammals, function of placenta in mammals; Organisers. Regeneration.Organogenesis of the central nervous system, sense organs, heart and kidney of vertebrate embryos.