Types of Soil in Haryana
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Types of Soil in Haryana
Soils in Haryana
The region of Haryana has mostly the alluvium type of soil. The location of Haryana is towards the depression of the rivers Ganga and Indus. Haryana is a vast plain with moist land.
- The larger part of the state is the alluvium of the old type which contains sand, clay, silt, and kantars. Kankars are the hard calcareous concentrations of nut size.
- The exception to this type of soil is the floodplains of Yamuna and Ghaggar.
- The new/recent type of alluvium is known as Khadar. It consists of coarse sand and silt deposited by the rivers regularly.
- The southwestern parts of the state have piles of sand known as sand dunes.
- The size and height of dunes vary with the flow of the winds. Sometimes the sand dunes may be several meters in height and several kilometers in length.
Now let us have a look at soil types of some districts.
- It is a part of the alluvial plain of the Yamuna river. It slopes from west to east. Thus the water of the area flows towards the Yamuna. There are following two types of soils:
- The first one is the older alluvial soil which is known as Bangar. It is spread across the western part of the district.
- The other one is the relatively newer alluvial soil of floodplains which is known as khadar. It is suitable for the cultivation of rice and sugarcane.
- The south-west area is irrigated by tube wells and canals and is a prosperous agricultural area.
- Physiographically the district is divided into three regions:
- The Khadar,
- The upland plain and
- The sandy region.
- It comprises the vast Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains called older alluvial plains.
- This older alluvial plain is further divided into sand derived from the old alluvial plains mostly from the Himalayan rivers having a heterogeneous composition.
- It comprises vast Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains.
- The main physiographic components are:
- Upland plains covered with old alluvium soil possessing high productivity characteristics are spread in the northeastern part of the district; and
- Alluvial Plains are productive soils with good irrigation facilities (canal and tube-wells).
- The region can be divided into four terrains:
- Barren rocky/stony waste/sheet rocky
- Sandy plain with sand dunes
- Old flood plains and occasional hillocks and
- Undulating uplands with or without scrub.
- It has hills on one hand and depressions on the other, forming irregular and diverse nature of the topography.
- There are two ridges
(i) the Firozpur-Jhirka Delhi ridge forms the western boundary and
(ii) the Delhi ridge forms the eastern boundary of the district.
- The district has distinct topographic features with flat alluvial plains over most of the region, long and narrow pediments, and local undulations caused by windblown sands at the foothill zones and the plains.
Faridabad and Palwal:
- These districts have mountainous physiography and have alluvium deposits.
- The alluvial plains have been divided into two units:
- Khadar - the low lying flood plain of new alluvium and
- Banger - an upland plain made of older alluvial and is spread towards the west.
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