Types Of Industries : Industries Part 2
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Types Of Industries : Industries Part 2

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GEOGRAPHY

Types Of Industries: Industries Part 2

This is in the continuation of the article Industries. In this article, we are going to discuss the different types of industries and their localization and distribution.  

Types Of Industries

Chemical Industries

  • The Chemical industry in India contributes approximately 6.7 percent of the GDP. 
  • It is the third-largest in Asia and occupies the twelfth place in the world in terms of its size. 
  • It comprises both large and small-scale manufacturing units. 
  • Rapid growth has been recorded in both the inorganic and organic sectors.
  • Inorganic chemicals include sulphuric acid (used to manufacture fertilizers, synthetic fibers, plastics, paints, dyes stuff), nitric acid, alkalies, soda ash (used to make glass, soaps, and detergents, paper), and caustic soda.
  • Organic chemicals include petrochemicals, which are used for manufacturing synthetic fibers, synthetic rubber, plastics, dyestuffs, drugs, and pharmaceuticals. 
  • Organic chemical plants are located near oil refineries or petrochemical plants.
  • Basic chemicals undergo processing to further produce other chemicals that are used for industrial application, agriculture, or directly for consumer markets.

Location factor:

1. Raw materials: Used for the manufacture of chemicals and are bulky and weight loss. So, some of the plants develop within the raw material sources.

2. The development of science and technology

3. Steady demand for the products.

4. Abundant and regular good quality power supply 

5. Capital: Chemical industry is a capital-intensive industry.

6. Most of the raw materials used in chemical plants are bulky and weight loss. It is desirable to have a good transportation network.

 

 Fertilizer Industries

  • The Fertilizer industry is centered around the production of nitrogenous fertilizers (mainly urea), phosphatic fertilizers, and ammonium phosphate (DAP), and complex fertilizers which have a combination of nitrogen (N), Phosphate (P), and Potash (K)
  • India is the second-largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers
  • There are 57 fertilizer units manufacturing nitrogenous and complex nitrogenous fertilizers
  • Animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms also contribute many materials used as fertilizer. 
  • Phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen are the principal elements in the fertilizer industry.
  • Nitrogen provides vital foods for plants and sustenance for human life. 
  • Ironically, in the form of nitric acid as an ingredient of explosives, it causes enormous human destruction

Localization & Distribution:

  • Closely related to petrochemicals. 
  • About 70 percent of the plants producing nitrogenous fertilizer use naphtha as the basic raw material. That is why most of the fertilizer plants are located near the oil refineries.
  • However, some fertilizer plants draw their feedstock from steel slug as well as coke and lignite.
  • Phosphatic fertilizer plants are primarily dependent upon the mineral ‘phosphate’ which is available in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan.
  • Some plants are based on imported phosphate minerals.
  • Sulfur is another important mineral used for manufacturing fertilizers. This is available in Tamil Nadu.
  • Gujarat is the largest producer of fertilizers in India and accounts for more than one-fourth of the total production of nitrogenous as well as phosphatic fertilizers in the country.
  • This state has more than 14% of the country’s total installed capacity.
  • Tamil Nadu accounts for about 11 percent of the country’s installed capacity.
  • At present Tamil Nadu is the second-largest producer of phosphate fertilizers (about 16%) and the fourth-largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers nearly 9% of India.

 Cement Industries

  • Cement is essential for construction activity such as building houses, factories, bridges, roads, airports, dams, and other commercial establishments
  • Requires bulky and heavy raw material like limestone, silica, alumina, and gypsum
  • The industry has strategically located plants in Gujarat that have suitable access to the market in the Gulf countries
  • India is 2nd, largest cement producing country in the world, only after China
  • It produces about 8 percent of the world's production.
  • There are 128 large plants and 332 mini cement plants in the country
  • India produces a variety of cement.
  • Improvement in the quality has found the produce a readily available market in East Asia, Middle East, Africa, and South Asia apart from a large demand within the country
  • Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, and Kerala are the largest cement-producing states in India. Maharashtra is the largest consumer state of Cement.

 Textile Industries

  • Occupies unique position in the Indian economy as it contributes significantly to industrial production (14%), employment generation
  • The second largest after agriculture and foreign exchange earnings (about 24.6%). 
  • It contributes 2% towards GDP
  • It is the only industry in the country, which is self-reliant and complete in the value chain i.e, from raw material to the highest value-added products

Cotton Industries

  • The cotton textile industry comprises three sectors: mill sector, handloom and power loom.
  • The share of the large mill, handloom, and power loom sector in the total production of cotton cloth in 1998-99 was 5.4 percent, 20.6 percent, and 74 percent respectively.
  • The Cotton and synthetic fiber textile industry has made tremendous progress Per capita availability of the cloth from both types was 15 meters only in 1960-61.
  • In the year 1995-96, it has risen to 28 meters.

Distribution: Cotton Textile Industry

  • The cotton textile industry is one of the most widely distributed industries in our country. 
  • Located in more than 88 centers in different parts of the country. But the majority of them still located in the cotton-growing areas of the Great Plains and peninsular India.
  • Leading producer: Mumbai (Maharashtra) is the major center of textile mills (called ‘Cottonopolis’ of India). Sholapur, Kolhapur, Nagpur, Pune, Aurangabad, and Jalgaon are other important centers in Maharashtra.
  • Gujarat ranks second in the production of cotton textiles (Ahmedabad, Surat, Bharuch, Vadodara, Bhavnagar, and Rajkot)
  • Uttar Pradesh: Kanpur, Etawah, Modinagar, Varanasi, and Hathras 
  • Madhya Pradesh: Indore and Gwalior
  • West Bengal: Howrah, Serampore, and Murshidabad 
  • In Southern India: Tamil Nadu (Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Chennai, Madurai, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, and Thanjavur).
  • Karnataka: Bangalore, Mysore, Belgaum, and Gulbarga.

Location Factors: Ahmedabad– Mumbai – Pune region

  • Availability of raw material in this belt.
  • Availability of capital–Mumbai, Ahmedabad is the place where capital for investment is easily available.
  • Means of transport–This region is well connected with the rest of India by roads and railways. 
  • Accessibility to the market – Maharashtra, and Gujarat have a large market to sell textile products here.
  • Nearness to ports–Mumbai port facilitates the import of machinery and good quality of cotton from abroad and export of the finished products.
  • Cheap labor – Cheap and skilled labor is easily available from the surrounding areas.
  • Availability of power – Cheap and sufficient power is easily available here

Silk Industries

  • Indian Silk is known for its exquisiteness the world over and has a long history of silk exports.
  • The silk was mainly produced by the handloom sector. Only in the late 20th century, the modern silk fabric manufacturing techniques developed.
  • Even today the finer or the special textured fabrics are done on the handlooms.
  • India holds the 2nd position after China in the field of silk production. 
  • There are four different types of silk- (1) Mulberry (2) Tasar (3) Eri (4) Muga (golden yellow).
  • India has also a monopoly in Muga, Assam is the only producer.
  • The first modern factory was established in 1932 at Howrah. 

Distribution:-

  • Karnataka: 70% of the total country’s silk output (only Mulberry, Mill- Channapatna, Mysore.
  • Assam: 2% of total country output, the third-largest producer of non-mulberry silk, and the only Muga producing region.
  • West Bengal: 13% of the country’s production, mostly mulberry.
  • Jharkhand: 8% of the country’s production, mostly tassar.
  • Bhagalpur: (Bihar), Madhya Pradesh, J&K: are other producers.

Jute Industries

  • Jute is a rainfed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides. 
  • The production is concentrated in India and Bangladesh.
  • India with an overall of 66% of the world’s production tops the production of jute.
  • Bangladesh with 25% lies at second position followed way behind by China with 3%.
  • It supports nearly 4 million farm families, besides providing direct employment to about 2.6 lakh industrial workers and livelihood to another 1.4 lakh people in the tertiary and allied activities.

    Locational factors for a high concentration of jute mills in the Hugli basin are as follows:

  • The Ganga-Brahmaputra delta grows about 90 percent of India’s jute and provides raw material to jute mills here.
  • Coal: from Raniganj fields 
  • An adequate water supply is available.  for processing, washing, and dyeing jute.
  • Humid climate for spinning and weaving.
  • Kolkata port helps in the import of machinery and in the export of finished jute products.
  • Cheap labor: High density of population in West Bengal, Jharkhand.

Sugar Industries

  • The sugar industry is the second largest agro-based industry of India. 
  • If we take Gur, Khandsari, and Sugar together, then India becomes the largest producer of sugar products in the world. This industry employs about 2.5 lakh people.

Distribution:

  • Most of the sugar mills are concentrated in six states, namely Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh.
  • Maharashtra is the largest producer.

Localization Factors:

  • Raw material: Sugar mills can be set up only in the sugarcane-producing areas. Sugar Cane gets dry soon after harvesting. It can neither be stored nor kept for a long period of time.
  • The transportation cost of sugarcane is high. Generally, sugarcane is transported through bullock carts which can carry it up to 20-25 kilometers. 
  • Recently tractor trolleys and trucks have been used to carry sugarcane to the sugar mills.
  • Besides these factors, capital, market, labor and power also play a significant role in the localization of this industry.

Reasons for shifting of sugar industry from North India to Peninsular India:

  • The production of sugarcane per hectare is higher in Peninsular India. In fact, the sugarcane crop grows well in the tropical climate of south India.
  • The sucrose content is higher in the tropical variety of sugarcane grown in the south.
  • The crushing season in south India is longer than in north India.
  • In south India, most of the mills have modern machinery.
  • Most of the mills in Peninsular India are in the cooperative sector, where profit maximization is not the sole objective.

Petro Chemical Industries

  • One of the fastest-growing industries of India. 
  • This industry has revolutionized the industrial scene by providing products that are substituting the traditional raw materials like wood, glass, and metals.
  • India is self-sufficient in the production of petrochemicals.
  • Petrochemicals are derived from petroleum or natural gas. 
  • Toothbrushes, toothpaste, combs, hairpins, soap cases, plastic mugs, electric switches, lipstick, and foam, etc. are its derived products.

Locational Factor:

  • Refineries seek mostly seaboard locations to take advantage of the imported crude or the crude produced by the offshore oil field like Mumbai high.
  • Another trend is raw material-based like Assam refineries which are based on the inland oilfield.
  • Government policy has played an important role in setting up certain market-based refineries like Mathura, Barauni, and Panipat.
  • Indian Petrochemical Corporation has set up a huge petrochemical complex near Vadodara producing a wide range of products.

Pharmaceutical Industries

  • One of the oldest industries in India. 
  • At the top of the chart amongst India’s science-based industries with wide-ranging capabilities in the complex field of drug manufacture and technology.
  • The drugs and pharmaceutical units are mostly located in Kolkata, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Delhi, Pune, Rishikesh, Hyderabad, Kanpur, Indore, and Jaipur.
  • The pharma industry of India ranks very high amongst all the third world countries, in terms of technology, quality, and the vast range of medicines that are manufactured.
  • Ranges from simple headache pills to sophisticated antibiotics and complex cardiac compounds.
  • Among the most highly organized sectors. This industry plays an important role in promoting and sustaining development in the field of global medicine.
  • Due to the presence of low-cost manufacturing facilities, educated and skilled manpower, and cheap labor force among others, the industry is set to scale new heights in the fields of production, development, manufacturing, and research.

Industrial Corridor

The Industrial corridor program concentrates on the infrastructural development of Cities with the objective to expand the manufacturing and services base.

  • The industrial corridors in India are:

a) Delhi-Mumbai Industrial Corridor

  • Being developed in co-operation with the government of Japan

Runs across the six states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Maharashtra.

b) Amritsar-Kolkata corridor

  • Will be developed in a band of 150-200 km on either side of the Eastern Dedicated Freight Corridor (EDFC) in a phased manner.
  • Spread across a belt comprising seven states-Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Bihar, Jharkhand, and West Bengal

c) Chennai-Bangalore Industrial Corridor

  • Plans to come up along Chennai, Sriperumbudur, Chittoor, Palamaner, Ranipet, Bangarpet, Ponnapanthangal, Bangarupalem, Hoskote and Bangalore.
  • Being developed in co-operation with the government of Japan.

d) Bengaluru-Mumbai Economic Corridor

  • Being developed in co-operation with the government of UK.
  • The corridor will start from Bengaluru, passing through Tumkur, Chitradurga, Hubli, Dharwad, and Belgaum (in Karnataka), and end in Mumbai (in Maharashtra).

e) Visakhapatnam-Chennai Industrial Corridor (VCIC)

The long coastline and strategically located ports help to create multiple international gateways to connect India with the global production networks of Southeast and East Asia that form the bedrock of global manufacturing.

Major Industrial region of India

Kolkata – Hooghly Belt

  • An old and important region of the country
  • Cotton textile, silks, jute engineering, chemical and pharmaceuticals, leather, and footwear industries are located here.
  • Facilitated with the rich hinterland of Ganga, Brahmaputra Plain, and enough availability of good coal, cheap local labor, and the port facility of Kolkata.
  • Experiencing stagnation and a relative decline in industrial growth in recent years.

Reasons for the decline:

  • The high degree of congestion
  • Gradual filling of Kolkata port making the shipping facilities somewhat difficult
  • Paucity of space
  • Shortage of drinking water and civic amenities
  • Environmental pollution

Mumbai-Poona Belt

  • The most important industrial region of the country has a heavy concentration of cotton textile, engineering, oil refineries, fertilizers, and chemical industries.
  • The belt consists of Mumbai, Kurla, Ghatkopar, Andheri, Jogeshwari, Thane, Kalyan, Pimpri, and Poona.
  • Cheap labor, easy availability of hydroelectricity, raw cotton along port facilities; act as the main assets of this area.
  • The industrial development of this region has almost reached its saturation stage. and it has developed as an economic hub.

Ahmedabad-Vadodara-Surat Belt

  • The third-largest industrial region comprising within its fold the centers of Kalol, Ahmedabad, Nadiad, and Vadodara, Surat, Navsari, and Ankleshwar.
  • Leather goods and a wide variety of engineering units are established here.

Madurai-Coimbatore-Bangalore Region

  • Cheap and skilled labor, large market were the chief factors
  • Availability of cheap hydel power
  • Cotton textile, sugar plants, leather goods, chemicals, Iron and Steel, Hindustan Aeronautics have assisted the development of this area.

Chotanagpur Plateau Region

  • Locally available coal, iron-ore mica, bauxite copper, limestone, manganese have given rise to heavy industries like iron and steel at Jamshedpur, Durgapur, Kulti, Burnpur, Bokaro along with many associated industries.
  • Proximity to Kolkata port, a vast network of railways, cheap labor supply from the tribal areas helped the area to develop as a major industrial region on the map of India.

Mathura-Delhi-Saharanpur-Ambala belt

  • It has the advantage of the proximity of the national capital; availability of cheap raw materials; the nearness of a large market and regular supply of power.
  • Spreads in two separate belts running in a north-south direction between Faridabad and Ambala in Haryana and Mathura and Saharanpur in Uttar Pradesh.

Vishakhapatnam-Guntur Industrial Region:

  • Extends from the Vishakhapatnam district in the north-eastern part of Andhra Pradesh to Kurnool and Prakasham districts in the southeast and covers most of the coastal Andhra Pradesh.
  • The industrial development of this region mainly depends upon Vishakhapatnam and Machili-patnam ports.
  • Developed agriculture and rich mineral resources in the hinterlands of these ports provide a solid base for the industrial growth in this region. Coalfields of the Godavari basin is the main source of energy.

Kollam-Thiruvananthapuram Industrial Region:

  • Comparatively small industrial region and spreads over the Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam, Alwaye, Ernakulam, and Alappuzha districts of south Kerala.
  • Located far away from the mineral belt of the country so dominated by agricultural products processing and market-oriented light industries.
  • Main industries are textiles, sugar, rubber, matchbox, glass, food and fish processing, paper, coconut coir products, aluminum, and cement.
  • Important industrial centers are Kollam, Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi, Alappuzha.
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