Sisodia of Mewar : RAS History and Culture
Baljit Dhaka

Sisodia of Mewar : RAS History and Culture

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Sisodia of Mewar : RAS History and Culture

This article will cover Sisodia of Mewar, Various books written by Maharana Kumbha, Famous artists in court of Kumbha, Delhi sultanate and Sanga and much more.

Sisodia of Mewar:

  1. Maharana Hamir:
  • In 1326, Rana Hammir annexed Chittorgarh and established the Sisodia dynasty, who were the descendants of the  Guhil dynasty.
  • Since then , the rulers of Mewar were called Maharana.
  • Rana Hamir defended Chittor from the attack of Muhammad Tughlaq, who was the sultan of Delhi.
  • From Maharana Hamir to Maharana Udai singh (1567 ), Mewar was controlled from Chittor fort.
  • Hammir brought prosperity back to Mewar, and the star of Mewar shone with glory again.
  • Hammir is called as ‘Visham Ghati Panchanan’(One who is like a lion in adverse situations) in Rasik Priya and Kirti Stambh inscriptions .
  • Hammir died in 1364.
  1. Maharana Lakha and Maharana Mokal:
  • The grandson of Maharana  Mir and the son of Kshet singh was Laksh singh (Rana Lakha). 
  • He sat on the throne of Chittor in 1382.
  • During the reign of Maharana Lakha, Pichola lake was constructed.
  • In his old age, Maharana Lakha , married Hansabai, the sister of Rao Ranmal Rathore of Mandore, and The elder son of Rana Lakha, Chunda pledged that he will give the crown to the son of Hansabai.
  • Mokal was born in Hansabai.
  • Maharana  Mokal renovated the Samiddheshvar  temple and constructed the dwarikanath(vishnu) temple.
  • He was assassinated by chacha and mera in 1433.
  1. Maharana  Kumbha(1433-1468):
  • Maharana  kumbha  became the ruler of Chittor after the death of Maharana  Mokal.
  • Maharana kumbha is also called the ‘Hindu Surtran’ and 'Abhinav Bharat Acharya’ .
  • During the reign of maharana kumbha, a war was fought between  sultan of Mandu, Mahmud khilji  and Rana Kumbha , near Sarangpur. Maharana Kumbha won.
  • To commemorate this victory, a large Tower was erected in the fort of chittor. It was called Vijay Stambh.
  • The construction started in 1440 and was completed in 1448. The height of the tower is 120 feet and it has 9 floors.
  • The whole of Vijay Stambh is covered with a lot of idols of Hindu gods and goddesses. It is decorated with hindu style of architecture.
  • This tower is also called the ‘collection of Indian style of sculpture making’.
  • Maharana kumbha had great knowledge of arts and crafts and he was a great admirer of arts and crafts.
  • It is believed that he built 32 forts and a lot of temples and ponds. 
  • In 1448, he constructed various temples like Kumbha Shyam temple, Aadivarah temple, and in 1458 Kumbhalgarh fort,  Kumbha Swami temple etc. and renovated the Eklingaji temple. Within the fort, he made Kumbha Katargarh, which was the residence of Kumbha. The author of Kumbhalgarh Commendation was Kavi Mahesh.
  • Ranakpur Jain temple was built during the reign of Maharana Kumbha.
  • Maharana Kumbha was a great warrior, lover or knowledge and he himself was a scholar and he even respected other scholars.
  • His important books on music were Sangeet Raj, Sangeet Meemansa, Sud Prabandh, etc. Apart from these,  he even wrote four dramas.
  • The treaty of Champaner: the sultan of Malwa, Mahmud Khilji and the sultan of Gujarat Qutubuddin signed a treaty to defeat Maharana Kumbha and divide his kingdom among themselves. This treaty was signed in Champaner in 1456 . In 1457 Sultan Qutbuddin and sultan Mahmud Khilji attacked Mewar but they failed to defeat Maharana Kumbha.

Various books written by Maharana Kumbha:

  • Sangeet Raj: This is the most exhaustive, important and most famous book.
  • Rasikapriya:  In this book, Kumbha has fixed the tones to sing various parts of Geet Govind.
  • Sud prabandh: this book includes the details of Raag of various parts of Geet Govind and the details of famous singers in the court of Kumbha and the names of past acharyas of music.
  • Other books: Sangit Meemansa, sangeet kram Deepika , Naveen Geet Govind, Sangeet Sudha, Chandishakat, Sangit Ratnakar etc.

Famous artists in court of Kumbha: 

  • Shree Sarang Vyas: He was the music teacher of Maharana Kumbha.
  • Shree Kanha Vyas: He was the best poet of Kumbha’s court, he had vast knowledge of music and he was the author of ‘Ekalingamahatmaya’
  • Ramabai: She was the daughter of Maharana Kumbha and she has the knowledge of music shastra.
  • Atribhatt: he was a scholar of Sanskrit and was a great poet. He started the work of praise of Kumbha at the Kirti Stambh,  which was continued by his son, Mahesh Bhatt after his death.
  • In 1468, Kumbha was killed by his son Uda and Uda became the ruler.

Maharana sanga(1509-1528):

  • Maharana Sanga was the grandson of Maharana Sangram Singh and son of  Maharana  Raimal.
  • He was born in 1482 and he sat on the crown in 1509.
  • When it  was predicted  that Maharana Sanga would be the next ruler, his elder brothers Prithviraj and Jaymal were very jealous of him and wanted to kill him.
  • Karamchand Panwar of Ajmer saved Sanga from his brothers and kept hidden. He gave him a place to live till he was crowned.
  • When Rana Sanga became the king, the condition of the kingdom was very bad and Mewar was the target of a lot of enemies.
  • At the time, Delhi was ruled by Sultan Sikandar Lodhi, Gujarat by Mahmud Shah Begada, and Malwa by Naseer Shah khilji.
  • To establish friendly relations with neighbouring Rajput states, he made various relations with them by bonds of marriage.
  • To provide security to Mewar, he appointed people who were his well wishers and confidant people at the borders of Mewar. He gave them jagirs to control and thus kept them in his confidence. Soon, in this manner, he established his control over the whole of Rajasthan.
  • The flourishing Mewar was not bearable to other  kingdoms like Malwa, Gujarat and Delhi. They all attacked  but they were all defeated.

Rana Sanga and Malwa: 

  • In 1511, Mahmud Khilji-II became the ruler of Malwa, but the younger brother of Naseeruddin removed him and annexed the throne.
  • In february 1518, the ruler of Gujarat Muzaffar Shah attacked Malwa to help Mahmud Khilji  and annexed the throne of Mandu. 
  • On the request of the ruler or Chanderi, Rana Sanga attacked Gagron fort and controlled it.
  • He gave this fort to Mediniraay and returned to Mewar.
  • Battle of Gagron, 1519:
  • Gagron fort was very important to Malwa. So after returning from Mewar, Sanga attacked Gagron in order to weaken Mediniraay.
  • On the request of Medidniraay, Sanga reached Gagron again and attacked Mahmud and won the battle. 
  • Mehmud was held captive , later Rana forgave him and returned him to Malwa. 
  • In this war, for the first time, Mewar was on offensive mode, instead of defensive mode.
  • Malwa lost the battle on its own land. After the attack on Gagron, Ranga Sanga got rid of the Malwa problem.

Maharana Sanga and Gujarat :

  • Muzaffar Shah-II was the ruler of Gujarat.
  • Interference in Edar state - Sanga interfered in Eder state to make his supporter sit on the throne eder. 
  • The sons of Raav Bhaan of Eder, Raymal and Bharmal were fighting among themselves to become the king. Maharana Sanga helped Raymal to become the ruler.
  • Due to this interference, he had to fight with Mujafarshah of Gujarat .
  • Sikandar Shah was the successor of Muzaffar Shah, but his other son Bahadur Shah wanted to sit on the throne. He came to Mewar and stayed for a long time  in the asylum of Sanga.
  • Sanga helped him loot Gujarat multiple times and this made Gujarat weak and vulnerable.

Delhi sultanate and Sanga : 

Battle of Khatauli:

  • Rana sanga attacked parts of east Rajasthan, which were under Delhi empire and annexed them.
  • So Ibrahim lodhi was angry and to teach Sanga a lesson, he attacked Mewar and a war was fought by them in 1517, near Hadoti in Khatauli.
  • Lodhi was defeated in this battle.
  • Battle of Baadi (Dholpur) 1519
  • To avenge his defeat, Ibrahim Lodhi sent the royal army, under the leadership of Makkan.
  • The royal army was defeated very badly and they had to run away.

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Also read : History of Mewar

                  Ruling dynasties of Mewar