Ruling dynasties of Mewar : RAS Mains
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Ruling dynasties of Mewar : RAS Mains

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Ruling dynasties of Mewar : RAS Mains

Mewar or Mewad is a region in the south-central part of Rajasthan state of India. It includes the present-day districts of Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Pratapgarh, Rajsamand, Udaipur, Pirawa Tehsil of Jhalawar District of Rajasthan, Neemuch and Mandsaur of Madhya Pradesh and some parts of Gujarat. For centuries, the region was ruled by Rajputs.

Ruling dynasties of Mewar:

  1. Chittor Mewar Dynasty:
  • Maharana Hamir Singh I was the first Mewar ruler to adapt the title which was later used as a prefix to all the rulers’ name: ‘Maharana’.
  • Maharana Lakha claimed back the Mewar territories from Delhi.
  • Maharana Mokal was killed at the age of 24 when the Marwar invaded Mewar.
  • Maharana Sangram Singh I is popularly renowned as Rana Sanga, he was a great warrior who fought against the raids of Ibrahim Lodhi of Delhi. 
  • Later in 1527 was defeated in a furious battle against Babur the Mughal Emperor.
  • Maharana Udai Singh II had to shift the capital of Mewar from Chittor to Udaipur as Mughal Emperor Akbar sieged the palace and their forces were outnumbered.
  • Maharana Ratan Sen the husband of Rani Padmini (Padmavati) as depicted in the famous movie of Sanjay Leela Bhansali ‘Padmavati’ was also a Mewar ruler (1302 – 1303 CE).
  1. Udaipur Mewar Dynasty:
  • Maharana Pratap Singh I is the most celebrated Maharanas of Mewar, he fought fiercely from the Mughal Emperor Akbar to keep his Mewar in safe hands. 
  • The Battle of Haldighati is remembered as a token of bravery and sacrifice.
  • Maharana Amar Singh I became a vassal of the Mughal Empire for around 150 years and accepted their dominance.
  • Maharana Karan Singh II provided refuge to Prince Khurram popularly known as Shah Jahan at the Jagmandir Island Palace located amidst the Lake Pichola.
  • On April 7th 1949 Udaipur was signed under the accession of an Independent Democratic India.
  • The Maharanas now are considered as the Mewar Custodians.

East India Company and Mewar Treaty:

  • On January 13th 1818, the Treaty of Friendship, Unity and Alliance was signed between the East India Company and Mewar as the Scindia, Amir Khan, and Holkar raided Mewar frequently for more than half a century before 1818.
  • The treaty stated that Mewar will acknowledge the supremacy of the British in return for protection for the Mewar territory.

Guhils of Chittorgarh:

  • The creators of Mewar's ruling dynasty in Rajputana came originally from the Guhilot clan.
  • Foundation stories claim this clan originated in Kashmir and migrated to Gujarat in the sixth century. 
  • In the seventh century they migrated again, to the plains of Mewar, in the area around Magda, which was named after one of the earliest clan leaders.
  1. Guhil:
  • He is known as the founder of the Guhil dynasty.
  • Originally he was born in Anandnagar, Gujarat but in 565 C.E, he established an independent city at Nagda (Udaipur).
  1. Bappa Rawal:
  • Born as Kalbhoj
  • Is said to have defeated Maan Mori and laid the foundation of Guhilot Dynasty rule in Mewar.
  • Formed a triple alliance with Nagabhata & Jayasimha to defeat Arabs in the Battle of Rajasthan.
  1. Khumar (753 – 773 )
  2. Mattat (773 – 793 )
  3. Bhratrabhat (773 – 813 )
  4. Sinha (813 – 828)
  5. Khuman II (828 – 853):
  • Repelled up to 24 Muslim attacks.
  • Ruled a Golden Age in Mewar.
  1. Mahayak (853 – 878)
  2. Khuman III (878 – 942)
  3. Bhratrabhat II (942 – 943)
  4. Allat (943 – 953):
  • Possibly near the start of his reign, Allat is driven from Chittor by the Paramara king of Malwa, Munja Raja, who then rules Chittor and is succeeded by his nephew, Raja Bhoj. 
  • Allat establishes a new capital at ancient Ahar.
  • The death of Allat leaves a gap in the succession, and there is no Guhilot leader at all for a total of eight years while the Paramaras attack Ahar. 
  • The Paramara king, Vakpati Raj of Malwa, rules Chittor. 
  • It took until 971 for a new Guhilot king to reign.
  1. Naravna / Narvahan (971 – 973)
  2. Shalivahan (973 – 977)
  3. Shaktikumar (977 – 993)
  4. Amba Prasad (993 – 1007):
  • Fought against Mahmud Ghazni (Yamin-ud-Dawlah Mahmud).
  1. Suchi Verma (1007 – 1021)
  2. Narvarma (1021 – 1035)
  3. Kirtivarma (1035 – 1051)
  4. Yograj (1051 – 1068)
  5. Bairat / Vairat(1068 – 1088)
  6. Hanspal (1088 – 1103)
  7. Vairi Singh (1103 – 1107)
  8. Vijay Singh (1107 – 1127)
  9. Ari Singh I (1127 – 1138):
  • Chittor is again captured by Malwa.
  1. Chaur Singh (1138 – 1148)
  • The Western Chalukyas attack the Paramaras who hold Chittor.
  1. Vikram Singh / Vikramaditya I (1148 – 1158)
  2. Karan Singh (1158 – 1168)
  • The royal family divides, possibly near the end of Karan Singh’s reign. 
  • His son Rahap establishes the Sisodia branch of the family while another son, Mahap, establishes the Dungarpur kingdom.
  1. Kshem Singh (1168 – 1172)
  2. Samant Singh (1172 – 1179):
  • Samant Singh occupied Bagar (in the Dungarpur area) during his reign. 
  • After seven years on the throne he is slain by Kirtipal Solanki of Nadol in battle at Ghaggar (Punjab).
  1. Kumar Singh(1179 – 1191):
  • Possibly relocated the capital to Nagda at the end of his reign.
  1. Mathan Singh (1191 – 1211):
  • 1191 – 1192 – Mathan Singh fights in the Battles of Tarain, in which the Chauhan ruler, Prithviraj III, and the Rajput confederation which includes Mewar (the Hindu League) are defeated by the Ghurid Sultan Muhammad Ghori.
  • 1207 – Chittor is taken and ruled by the Western Chalukyas just as they are facing their own terminal decline.
  1. Padam Singh (1211 – 1213)
  2. Jait Singh / Jaitra Singh (1213 – 1253):
  • During his reign, Jait Singh defeats the Malwa Rajputs who rule Chittor, reinstating its fort as the capital of Mewar. 
  • This probably occurs shortly after Sultan Iltutmish of Delhi has destroyed Nagda.
  • 1234 – Sultan Iltutmish of Delhi is defeated by Mewar when he invades the region.
  • 1253 – 1261: There is an apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, although the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. 
  • The relation of the next known ruler of Mewar to his predecessor is also unknown.
  1. Tej Singh (1261 – 1267)
  • 1267 – 1273

There is a second apparent interregnum. No known ruler of Mewar exists during this period, and the fate of Tej Singh is unknown, as are the circumstances behind the gap are unknown. 

It takes six years for Tej Singh’s son to ascend the throne.

  1. Samar Singh (1273 – 1302)
  • Samar Singh builds a wall around Mahasati in Chittoor. 
  • His son, Kumbh Karan, migrates to Nepal (where his descendants become the Nepalese royal family).
  1. Rawal Ratan Singh:
  • Ratan singh and Kumbhkaran were the two sons of Sumer singh, who was the Descendant of Jaitrasingh.
  • Ratan Singh became the ruler of Mewar. The important event of his reign was the first Shaka. The sultan of Delhi Alauddin Khilji attacked Chittor on January 28,  1303. 
  • According to ‘Padmavat’, written by Malik Muhammad Jayasi, the main reason for the battle was the wife of Ratan singh, Padmini. 
  • Rawal Ratan Singh was killed in this war and queen Padmini  performed the sacrifice called ‘Johar’.
  • ‘Gora and Badal’ were two young men who fought bravely and sacrificed their lives.
  • Allaudin Khilji handed over the fort of Chittor to his son Khijra and renamed it as Khizrabad.
  • In the first Shaka of Chittor, poet Amir Khusro accompanied Allaudin Khilji.
  • The main reasons why Alauddin Khilji attacked were :-
  • Alauddin khilji was too ambitious and imperialist.
  • The strategic location and importance of Chittor fort. All the routes from Delhi to Malwa, Gujarat and South India passed through this route only.
  • To get the beautiful wife of Rawal Ratan Singh for himself.

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Also read : History of Mewar