# Indian Mathematicians and their Contributions

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**Indian Mathematicians and their Contributions**

India has made many contributions to this world, their cuisine, spices, art and literature, textiles, theatre (Bollywood) and so much more. However, some of the greatest contributions have been their contributions in mathematics stretching far back from ancient history to the modern day. The Indian geniuses have made revolutionary changes in the world of mathematics and made advancements and specializations in the world today.

**Aryabhata**

- He was born in 476 CE at Kusumapura.
- He was regarded as the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age.
- Aryabhaṭiya and Arya-Siddhanta were his known works.
- He worked on the ‘place value system’ using letters to signify numbers and stating qualities.
- He discovered the position of the 9 planets and found that these planets revolve around the sun.
- He also described the number of days in a year to be 365.

**Brahmagupta**

- He was born in 598 CE near present-day Rajasthan.
- The most important contribution of Brahmagupta to mathematics was introducing the concept and computing methods of zero (0).

**Bhaskara**

- He is also known as Bhaskaracharya.
- He was the one who acknowledged that any number divided by zero is infinity and that the sum of any number and infinity is also infinity.
- The famous book “Siddhanta Siromani” was written by him.

**Srinivasa Ramanujan**

- He was born in 1887.
- His important contributions to this field are
- Hardy-Ramanujan-Littlewood circle method in number theory
- Roger-Ramanujan’s identities in the partition of numbers
- Work on the algebra of inequalities
- Elliptic functions
- Continued fractions
- Partial sums and products of hypergeometric series

**P.C. Mahalanobis**

- P.C. Mahalanobis was born in 1893.
- He is known for
- Mahalanobis distance
- Feldman–Mahalanobis model

**C.R. Rao**

- R Rao was born in 1920.
- He is a well-known statistician.
- He is famous for his ‘Theory of estimation’.
- He is known for
- Cramer–Rao bound
- Rao–Blackwell theorem
- Orthogonal arrays
- Score test

**R. Kaprekar**

- D. R. Kaprekar was a recreational mathematician.
- He discovered several results in number theory, comprising a class of numbers and a constant named after him.

**Satyendranath Bose**

- He was born in 1894.
- He is known for his collaboration with Albert Einstein.
- He is best known for his work on quantum mechanics.
- He famous contributions are
- Bose-Einstein correlations
- Bose-Einstein condensate
- Bose-Einstein distribution
- Bose-Einstein statistics
- Boson
- Bose gas
- Photon gas
- Ideal Bose equation of state

**Shakuntala Devi**

- commonly known as the human computer.
- because of her incredible talent to solve calculations without using any calculator.
- In Dallas she even competed with a computer to give the cube root of 188138517 faster and she won.
- She went ahead to compete with UNIVAC, the world’s fastest computer to solve the 23rd root of a 201 digit number and she won that too.
- A woman with outstanding talent and outrageous world records.

**Narendra Karmarkar**

- Graduated from IIT Bombay in electrical engineering.
- And went ahead to proceed with his studies in the U.S. to gain his PhD.
- He is best known for his work in inventing polynomial algorithms for linear programming.
- This fine mind created an overlap between international technology and mathematics to give birth to algorithms.

**Harish-Chandra**

- The Indian originated American physicist and mathematician is famously known for infinite dimensional group representation theory.
- He made various contributions throughout his lifetime and has also been awarded with the cole prize by the American mathematical society.

**Hemachandra**

- His most significant contribution in mathematics was his initial version of the Fibonacci sequence.
- He was not only a mathematician but also a scholar, polymath, poet who wrote on grammar, philosophy and contemporary history.
- Therefore his contributions are not only restricted to math but over all the various different fields that he had mastered over.

**S. Seshadri**

- He graduated from Madras university in mathematics
- and studied further to gain his PhD from Bombay University.
- His main contributions are in algebraic geometry.
- He also invented the Seshadri constant and the Naraisham-seshadri constant.