Important Geography MCQs For UPSC / HCS
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Important Geography MCQs For UPSC / HCS

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GEOGRAPHY

Important Geography MCQs For UPSC / HCS

These are the important geography objective-type questions for UPSC / HCS. These questions will help you to get prepare for UPSC / HCS exams. 

Important Geography MCQs

Q1. Consider the following statements about earthquakes :

  1. All-natural earthquakes take place in the lithosphere.
  2. Hypocentre is the point within the Earth where an Earthquake originates
  3. Earthquakes are common along the transform plate boundaries.

Which of the statements is/are correct:

(a)  1 only

(b)  2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 3

(d)  1,2,3

Ans: (d) 1,2,3

Explanation: Self-explanatory

Q2. Consider the following statements about earthquakes :

  1. All-natural earthquakes take place in the lithosphere.
  2.  Hypocentre is the point within the Earth where an Earthquake originates
  3. Earthquakes are common along the transform plate boundaries

Which of the statements is/are correct:

(a)  1 only

(b)  2 only

(c)  Both 1 and 3

(d)  1,2,3

Ans: (d) 1,2,3

Explanation: The origin of the earthquake is called Epicentre. An earthquake happens due to Lithospheric plate movements. Different types of plate movements give rise to different phenomenons like mid-oceanic ridges, trenches, earthquakes, etc. The location below the earth’s surface where the earthquake starts is called the hypocenter, and the location directly above it on the surface of the earth is called the epicenter. 

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Q3. Consider the following statements and which of them is/are true. 

1. Transform fault boundaries are located where the plates slide past each other without the creation or destruction of the crust.

2. San Andreas Fault along the west coast of Mexico is a famous transform fault.

(a) Only 1

(b) Only 2

(c) Both 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans: (c) Both 1 and 2

Explanation: Self Explanatory

Q4. Which of the following rivers is incorrectly matched with the Delta formation and regions. 

(a) Mekong-South East Asia    

(b) the Mississippi-United States

(c) Volga-Russia

(d) Tigris-Euphrates- Southwest Asia

Ans: (d)

Explanation: Self Explanatory

Q5. Which of the following is the correct order of Doab regions from South to North?

(a) Chaj, Bari, Sind Sagar, Bist 

(b) Bari, Bist, Rachna, Chaj 

(c) Bist, Bari, Rachna, Sind Sagar 

(d) Sind Sagar,Bari ,Bist, Rachna

Ans: (c) Bist, Bari, Rachna, Sind Sagar

Explanation: Self Explanatory

Q6. Which of the following has the highest albedo? 

(a) Deciduous forest 

(b) Desert

(c) Fresh snow     

(d) Glacier ice 

Ans: (c) Fresh snow

Explanation: Albedo is a measure of how much light that hits a surface is reflected without being absorbed Something that appears white reflects most of the light that hits it and has a high albedo, while something that looks dark absorbs most of the light that hits it, indicating a low albedo. Albedo is the reflectance of solar energy from the earth's surface. Fresh snow has the highest albedo. Immediately after a fresh snowfall, up the 90% of the solar radiation can be reflected off the snow.

Q7. Which of the following is/are not characteristics of El Nino?

(a) Increased surface pressure over the Indian Ocean, Australia, and Indonesia

(b) Rise in warm air near Peru

(c) Fall in air pressure over eastern and central Pacific ocean and Tahiti.

(d) Below-average sea surface temperatures across the east-central Equatorial Pacific.

Ans: (d) Below-average sea surface temperatures across the east-central Equatorial Pacific

Explanation: El-Nino is a narrow warm current that occasionally appears on the coast of Peru which temporarily replaces the cold Peru current. The warming of tropical Pacific waters affects the global pattern of pressure-wind systems including the monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean. La-Nina is the reverse phenomenon of El-Nino. Below-average sea surface temperatures across the east-central Equatorial Pacific are a characteristic of La Nina.

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Q8. Which of the following are causes of an eruption of volcanoes?

  1. Due to diverging or converging tectonic plates.
  2. Ascent of magma due to pressure from gases and vapor.
  3. Decrease in pressure of Magma as it rises up towards the crust.
  4. Injection of a new batch of magma into an already filled magma chamber 

(a) 1,2

(b) 1,3

(c) 1, 2,3

(d) All

Ans: (d) All

Explanation: A volcano is a vent or opening through which heated materials consisting of gases, liquid lava, fragments of rocks are ejected from the highly heated interior to the surface of the Earth. It can happen along with the converging or diverging Lithospheric plates.

Q9. Please consider the following statements and chose which one is true? 

1. Solar radiation that is intercepted by the Earth is called insulation.

2. Insolation is lowest near the Equator and highest near poles.

3. Albedo is an essential process for the survival of life on Earth.

4. Except long term climatic changes, Earth’s temperature remains constant. This process is called Heat Budget.

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 1,2,3

(c) 2,3,4

(d) 1,3,4

Ans: (d) 1,3,4

Explanation: The amount of insolation is highest near Equators as the region received the highest amount of heat and sunlight and the lowest near poles as the region receives the lowest amount of sunlight.

Q10. Insolation depends upon the following factors

1.The area and nature of the surface 

2.The inclination of the surface towards the Sun 

3.The transparency of Atmosphere and Length of the day

4.Distance between the Earth and the Sun.

(a) 1 and 3

(b) 1,2,3

(c) 2,3,4

(d) All

Ans: (d) All

Explanation: Self Explanatory

Q11. Consider the following statements about the structure of the sun

  1. The core of the Sun has the highest temperature and pressure among all layers.
  2. Solar energy is produced in the core by a controlled nuclear fission process.
  3. The photosphere is the first visible layer of the sun.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct? 

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c)  2 and 3 only

(d)  All of the statements

Ans: (b) 1 and 3 only

Explanation: The core of the sun: 

The core of the Sun has the highest temperature and pressure among all layers. (statement 1 is correct).The temperature of the core is around 15 million degree Celsius – is in the ionized state called plasma. Solar energy is produced in the core by a controlled nuclear fusion process. (statement 2 Is incorrect). The high temperature in the core helps in removing the electrons from hydrogen atoms and in creating numerous electrons and protons for nuclear fusion. Photosphere: This is the first visible layer of the Sun. The temperature here is around 6000 degrees Kelvin (5370 degrees Celsius). The solar spots are formed on this layer. The temperature of a solar spot is around 4500 degrees. (statement 3 is correct)

Q12. Which of the following are east-flowing rivers?

1. Mahi

2. Cauvery  

3. Sabarmati 

4. Krishna

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 and 4

(c) 1,2,3

(d) 1,3,4

Ans: (b) 2 and 4

Explanation: Mahanadi, Cauvery, Godavari, Krishna are East flowing rivers

Narmada, Mahi Sabarmati are west-flowing rivers

 Q13. Consider the following statements

1. The discontinuity between the Upper and lower crust is termed the Conrad Discontinuity.

2. The discontinuity between the crust and mantle is called the Mohorovich Discontinuity or Moho discontinuity.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 2 both

(d) None

Ans: (c) 1 and 2 both

Explanation: Both statements are correct.

Q14. Which of the following depicts ‘Bolide’?  

(a) A celestial body bigger than 10 m orbiting the Sun, mainly between Mars and Jupiter. Made of rock and metal.

(b) It is a small rock or particle of debris in our solar system. They range in size from dust to around 10 meters in diameter.

(c) A fireball that explodes during its atmospheric flight, often with visible fragmentation.

(d) A very bright meteor.

Ans: (c) A fireball that explodes during its atmospheric flight, often with visible fragmentation

Explanation: Fireball: A very bright meteor (brighter than the planet Venus).

Q15. Consider the following statements about Mantle:

1. The uppermost solid part of the mantle and the entire crust constitutes the Lithosphere.

2. It is composed mainly of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni). 

3. It constitutes nearly 15% of the earth’s volume.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct? 

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) All

Ans: (a) 1 only

Explanation: Statement 2 and 3 describe the Core of the earth, not the mantle. Hence 2 and 3 are INCORRECT.

The portion of the interior beyond the crust is called the mantle. The mantle is about 2900 km in thickness. Nearly 84% of the earth’s volume and 67% of the earth’s mass is occupied by the mantle. The major constituent elements of the mantle are Silicon and Magnesium and hence it is also termed SIM. The uppermost solid part of the mantle and the entire crust constitutes the Lithosphere.

Q16. Consider the following statements regarding Earthquakes:

1. The point within the earth’s crust where an earthquake originates is called the epicenter. 

2. The secondary waves (earthquake waves) are slower than primary waves and can pass only through solid materials.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct? 

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 2 both

(d) None

Ans: (b) 2 only

Explanation: Earthquake waves are basically of two types – body waves and surface waves. They are generated due to the release of energy at the focus and moves in all directions traveling through the body of the earth. Hence, the name – body waves. There are two types of body waves as primary waves and secondary waves. Primary waves are the fastest body waves (twice the speed of surface waves) and are the first to reach during an earthquake. They are similar to sound waves, i.e, they are longitudinal waves, in which particle movement is in the same direction of wave propagation.

Q17. Consider the following processes

1. Frost Action

2. Temperature Changes 

3. Solution

4. Repeated wetting and drying 

Which of the above process  depicts Physical or Mechanical Weathering:

(a) 1 and 4 only

(b) 2 and 3 only

(c) 1, 2, and 4 only

(d) All

Ans: (c) 1, 2, and 4 only

Explanation: Physical or Mechanical Weathering::Repeated Temperature Changes: In deserts rocks are exposed to the blazing sun during the day and are intensely heated. The outer layers expand much faster than the cooler interior of the rocks and tend to pull away from the rest. At nightfall, the temperature drops rapidly and the outer layers contract more rapidly than the interior, setting up internal stresses. Such stresses, repeated every day for months and years cause the rocks to crack and split. Well-bedded and jointed rocks tend to split along the joints and cracks, breaking up into rectangular blocks. In crystalline rocks such as granite the crystals of the various minerals (quartz, mica, feldspar) will expand and contract at different rates, enhancing the stresses and accelerating the disintegration of the rocks. Stresses and pressures will naturally be greatest near the surface and where there are sharp angles in the rocks.

Q18.Consider the following statements

1. Seismometers are instruments that are used to measure the motion of the ground. 

2. The recorded graphical output from a seismometer is known as a seismograph.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 2 both

(d) None

Ans: (a) 1 only

Explanation: Measuring earthquakes:

Seismometers are the instruments that are used to measure the motion of the ground, which including those of seismic waves generated by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other seismic sources. (Statement 1 is correct). A Seismograph is also another term used to mean seismometer though it is more applicable to the older instruments. The recorded graphical output from a seismometer/seismograph is called a seismogram. (statement 2 is incorrect)

Q19. Which of the following is true about Pir Panjal's pass?

(a) It connects Kashmir valley to central Asia

(b) It connects Jammu and Srinagar

(c) It connects Shimla to Tibet

(d) It signifies the entry of the Brahmaputra River to India

Ans: (b) It connects Jammu and Srinagar

Explanation: Self-explanatory

Q20. ‘River Capture’ is associated with which of the following stage of the river?

(a) Youth

(b) Maturity 

(c) Old 

(d) All of the above 

 Ans: (a) Youth 

Explanation: River Capture Also known as river piracy or river beheading Associated with the young stage of the river. Its development depends upon the different rates of back cutting (headward erosion) into a divide mainly due to differences in precipitation received by streams. If one side of the divide cuts more rapidly than the other then its greater erosive power will succeed in enlarging its basin at the expense of a weaker stream. The bend at which the piracy occurs is termed as Elbow of the capture & the beheaded stream is called a misfit. The valley below the elbow is a wind gap which may be useful for road & rail route.

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