History of Rathore Rulers | RAS Mains History and Culture
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History of Rathore Rulers | RAS Mains History and Culture

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History of Rathore Rulers |  RAS Mains History and Culture

This article will cover the Rathores of Marwar Dynasty in Rajasthan. Marwar (also called Jodhpur region) is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in North Western India. 

Rathores of Marwar Dynasty in Rajasthan

Marwar:

  • Marwar (also called Jodhpur region) is a region of southwestern Rajasthan state in North Western India. 
  • It lies partly in the Thar Desert. 
  • The word 'maru' is Sanskrit for desert. 
  • In Rajasthani dialect, "wad" means a particular area. 
  • The English translation of the word 'marwar' is 'the region of desert.
  • The region includes the present-day districts of Barmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali and parts of Sikar . 
  • It is bounded on the north by Jangladesh region, on the northeast by Dhundhar, on the east by Ajmer, on the southeast by Mewar, on the south by Godwar, on the southwest by Sindh, and on the west by Jaisalmer region.

History of Rathore Rulers:

  • The Rathore rulers of the Indian princely state of Jodhpur were of an ancient dynasty established in the 8th century. 
  • However, the dynasties were made by Rao Jodha, first of the rulers of the Rathore dynasty in Jodhpur in 1459. 
  • Out of the 15 rulers that preceded Jodha, 9 died on the battlefield, of them 6 against foreign armies. 
  • Jodha's son himself died after a battle in which he saved 140 women from Afghan raiders.
  • The kingdom remained independent until it was annexed by the Mughal Empire in 1581 after the death of Chandrasen Rathore. 
  • It remained under direct Mughal control until Udai Singh was restored to the throne as a vassal and given the title of Raja in 1583.
  • During the late 17th century it was under the strict control of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, but the ruling house of Rathore was allowed to remain semi-autonomous in their territory.
  • During this time Durgadas Rathore struggled to preserve the Rathore dynasty and freed Marwar from the Mughal Empire after 31 years of war. 
  • In the late 18th and early 19th centuries the kingdom was overrun by the Maratha hordes of Scindia and Holkar.
  • Marwar was financially bankrupt due to heavy tributes exacted by the Marathas and its once renowned army had now thinned down because of internal wars and rebellions by its nobles, forcing its rulers to ask the British for aid.
  • The British had no role in the state's affairs until 6 January 1818, when the Raja at that time, Man Singh, entered into a subsidiary alliance, after which the Rajas of Marwar (or Jodhpur) continued as rulers of a princely state.
  • During the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Rajput Nobles of Pali under Thakur Kushal Singh Rathore led a rebellion against Raja Takht Singh and the British, however the rebellion was put to an end by the British armies under colonel Holmes after a siege of the Thakurs fort in Auwa.
  • The armies of Jodhpur State fought in World War I for the British. 
  • They actively fought in Afghanistan and the Middle-east and scored a series of victories for the British empire. 
  • The Jodhpur lancers with the support of the Mysore lancers defeated a large host of Turks and Germans in the Battle of Haifa (1918). 
  • Some of the other battles they participated in were the battles of Suez, Gaza, Jordan Valley, Abu Tellul and Megiddo.
  • Following Indian independence in 1947 Maharaja Hanwant Singh, the last ruler of Jodhpur state, delayed signing the Instrument of Accession to India. 
  • He even briefly considered acceding to Pakistan, for Jodhpur shared a border with the new nation and he had been personally given a blank page to write his demands and an assurance of access to sea ports in Pakistan by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. 
  • But due to the effective persuasion of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel and Lord Mountbatten, the Maharaja of Jodhpur agreed to the accession of his state to the new Dominion of India.

Read the next article to study about Important Rulers of Rathores or join RAS