History of Haryana : HPSC HCS Notes
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History of Haryana : HPSC HCS Notes

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History of Haryana: HPSC HCS Notes

Haryana is a state in India. The Haryana dates back thousands of years. The state houses several sites from the Indus Valley Civilization, which was a cradle of civilization. In Mahabharat, Haryana is mentioned as Bahudanayak Region.

The history of Haryana is a must for all students appearing for the HCS exam. 

History of Haryana : HPSC HCS Notes

History of Haryana

  • The name “Haryana” means the Home of God. Haryana has one of the most unique histories in the world, and today it is representing the face of modern India.
  • The history of Haryana dates back thousands of years.
  • From Indus Valley Civilization to Vedic Civilization, and from the great battle of Kurukshetra to battles of Panipat, Haryana has been the Centre of various incredible and unique events of old times.

Let us go through the main aspects of the History of Haryana in chronological order:

Ancient History

Excavations of various archeological sites in Haryana show evidence of the presence of Indus Valley Civilization in and around the state. Some of the famous sites are given below:

Site Name District Name    
Rakhigarhi Hisar
Agroha Hisar
Naurangabad Bhiwani
Mitathal Bhiwani
Banawali Fatehabad
Kunal Fatehabad

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  • The beginning of Vedic Civilization began and matured along the banks of the River Saraswati in Haryana.
  • It is also considered that the Vedas were written in this region. 
  • Aryans chanted their sacred Mantras here.
  • The great epic of Mahabharata mentions Haryana. Haryana is mentioned as ‘Bahudhanyaka’ that is ‘Land of Grains’.
  • The great battle of Mahabharata, which was fought among Kauravas and Pandavas, was fought on the land of Dharmakshetra Kurukshetra. Actually, the boundaries of ancient Kurukshetra are mentioned almost the same as that of present-day Haryana state.
  • Many places of Haryana and its nearby places are mentioned in Mahabharata like:
In Mahabharata     Now
Village of Guru Dronacharya Gurgaon
Indraprastha Delhi
Sonprastha Sonipat
Panprastha Panipat
City of Karana     Karnal
Prithudaka Pehowa
Tilprashtha Tilpat (Faridabad Distt.)
Vyaghrprastha Baghpat ( Uttar Pradesh)
Village of Abhimanyu         Amin(now Abhimanyupur,Kurukshetra Distt)

Note: Indraprastha, Sonprastha, Panprastha, Tilprashtha, and Vyaghrprastha were the five villages demanded by Pandavas from the Kauravas as their right over the Kuru Kingdom.

  • At Jyotisar ( Kurukshetra ), Lord Krishna preached Arjuna the Bhagwat Geeta Updesh.
  • It is the region where Sage Ved Vyas has written the Mahabharata in Sanskrit.
  • Agroha near Hisar is known as the city of Merchants and was ruled by great king Maharaja Agarsen.

Medieval History

Haryana was known as the ‘Gateway to North India’. This is because various invaders like Huns, Turks, and the Afghans invaded India through this region, and many battles between the native rulers and the invaders took place.

  • 6th century AD -  Downfall of the Gupta empire.
  • 7th century AD -  Harshvardhan became the King of Thanesar (old Kurukshetra).
  • 12th century AD - Forts were established at Taraori and Hansi by Prithviraj Chauhan.
  • At the end of the 12th century (in 1192 AD) - The Second Battle of Tarain took place and Muhammed Gauri conquered Haryana.
  • 13th century AD - With the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, North India again became the center of interest. From now and onwards, Haryana was used as a base to fight a number of battles.
  • 1240 AD - Rajiya Sultana was killed near Kaithal in the battle between Rajiya Sultana and her husband Altunia on one side and her brother Bahram on the other. She was the daughter of Iltutmish (Slave dynasty ruler). She was the only female Muslim ruler of Delhi. Her reign lasted for four years (1236-40).
  • The earliest reference to ‘Haryana’ is found in a Sanskrit inscription that dates back to 1328 AD. It is kept in the Delhi Museum. In the inscription, the region is mentioned as ‘Heaven on the earth, which signifies the peaceful and fertile land of the state.
  • 14th century AD - Firoz Shah Tughlaq established a fort at Hisar in 1354.
  • The Battles of Panipat that changed the History of India have been fought in this region. Following three battles were fought near the present-day Panipat:
Battle Year Faught among Winner
First Battle of Panipat 1526 Mughal King Babur and Delhi Sultanate Ruler Ibrahim Lodhi Babur
- It led to the establishment of the Mughal Empire in India.
Second Battle of Panipat 1556 Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, popularly called Hemu and Akbar’s general Bairam Khan Akbar
- death of Hemu
- Reign of Akbar began
-consolidation of the Mughal Empire
Third Battle of Panipat 1761 The Maratha Empire and a coalition of
-Afghan general Ahmed Shah Abdali of Durrani Empire 
and two Indian Muslim allies namely 
-the Rohilla Afghans of the Doab and 
-Shuja-ud-Daula, the Nawab of Oudh.
Ahmed Shah Abdali
-lost their position in north India
-it paved the way for British colonial power to expand to North India.

Modern History

With the third battle of Panipat, the North Indian region along with Haryana lost any consolidated rule. The region remained unstable for years. Then comes the British East India Company. 

  • At the beginning of the 19th century, the British Company's rule started over the region.
  • The people of the region were not ready to accept the Foreign rules and started revolting against them.
  • The Sikh chiefs and the Muslim Bhatti Rajputs of Haryana also organized themselves against British Rule.
  • There occurred two Anglo-Sikh Wars during this time.
War Year Faught Among Result
First Anglo-Sikh War 1845-1846 British forces and the Sikh empire

Treaty of Lahore

it leads to partial control of the British over Punjab and a major portion of Haryana.

Second Anglo-Sikh War 1848-1849 British forces and the Sikh empire The annexation of Punjab by East India Company.

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  • 1857 - The First War of Independence started from Ambala Cantt on 10th May.
  • The major centers of rebellion were at Hisar, Hansi, Sirsa, Rohtak, Jhajjar, Bahadurgarh, Farrukhnagar, Ballabhgarh, Rewari, Ambala, Panipat, and Thanesar.
  • Following are some rebels from Haryana who played a key role in the 1857 revolt:

Name Place
Raja Nahar Singh (jaat ruler)     Ballabhgarh
Rao Tula Ram     Rewari
Nawab Abdur Rahman Khan Jhajjar
Nawab Ahmad Ali     Farrukhnagar
Sadruddin (peasant leader) Mewat
Harsukh Rai and Mirza Gauhar Ali     Palwal
Imam of Bu Ali Shah Qalandar mosque Panipat
Dhanu Singh Faridabad


  • After the failure of the revolt, Haryana was taken out of the North-Western Frontier and was merged with Punjab as a punishment by the British.
  • From the beginning till the end, the people of Haryana participated actively in the Independence Movement.
  • A number of battles were fought by the rulers of the states and by the farmers also. Sometimes they also defeated the British army. Some of the most important fights were at Sirsa, Sonipat, Rohtak, and Hissar. The famous battle of Chormar was fought in Sirsa.
  • There were many freedom fighters from Haryana who worked tirelessly in the Freedom struggle of India.
  • Sir Chhotu Ram, Seth Chhajju Ram, Babu Mool Chand Jain, Seth Chhaju Ram, Pandit Neki Ram Sharma, Deshbandhu Gupta, Ranbir Singh Hooda, Rao Tula Ram, etc are some of the main leaders in India’s freedom struggle.
  • Lala Murlidhar of Ambala and journalist Balmukund Gupt of Rewari were the members of the founding session of congress.
  • 2847 soldiers were from Haryana in Subhas Chandra Bose's Azad Hind Fauj.
  • Then came 1947, when India attained independence and this is the time when riots took place across the nation due to the partition of the country. Haryana was also affected by the nationwide riots.

Formation Of Haryana

The demand for Haryana as a separate state dates back to colonial times. 

  • In 1920, certain changes in the Delhi district were suggested. 
  • The extension of the boundaries of Delhi was also suggested by Muslim League to include Agra, Meerut, and Ambala Division in it.
  • In 1928, all parties' conferences at Delhi again made a demand for extension of the boundaries of Delhi. 
  • Some of the prominent leaders of the freedom struggle from Haryana, like Pt. Neki Ram Sharma, Lala Desbandhu Gupta, and Sri Ram Sharma, requested Gandhiji that the districts of the Haryana region be merged with Delhi.
  • In 1931, at the Second Round Table Conference, the same demand was raised by Sir Geoffrey Corbert who was Financial Commissioner of the then Punjab Government and Secretary of the Indian Delegation to the Round Table Conference. 

Hindi language movement

  • The movement started in the Hindi-speaking areas of Punjab on 30 April 1957 and lasted till 27 December 1957. 
  • It led to the demand for the formation of Haryana as a separate state for the Hindi-speaking people of the united Punjab province. 
  • The Punjabi Suba & Punjabi language movement further added fuel to the fire. 
  • People of Hindi-speaking areas of Punjab resisted the decision of making Punjabi the state language and making it a compulsory language in schools. 
  • Many activists were arrested during the movement by the state government. 

Finally, Punjab was reorganized and the state of Haryana was carved out of it on a Linguistic basis on 1st November 1966. 

  • Making Haryana a separate state was the recommendation of the Sardar Hukam Singh Parliamentary Committee. The formation of the committee was announced in the Parliament on 23 September 1965.
  • Acting as per the recommendations of the committee, Shah Commission was set up under the chairmanship of Justice J. C. Shah on 23 April 1966.
  • The commission submitted its report on 31 May 1966. 
  • The districts of Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak, and Karnal and Tehsils of Jind (district Sangrur), Narwana (district Sangrur) Naraingarh, Ambala, and Jagadhri of district Ambala were included in the state of Haryana.
  • Thus,  Haryana was constituted as a separate state with seven districts. The seven districts were Rohtak, Jind, Hisar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Karnal, Ambala.
  • Then 15 more districts were added with time by reorganizing the boundaries of the existing seven districts. 
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