HCS Study Material : Indian Polity Notes for HCS Exam
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HCS Study Material: Indian Polity Notes for HCS Exam

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HCS Study Material: Indian Polity Notes for HCS Exam

The Complete Study Material on the “Indian Polity Governance” is designed to help the aspirants of competitive exams like UPSC/HCS/PCS and others. This material contains; Fundamental Rights Fundamental Duties, Parliament Indian Judiciary, Union State Executive Constitutional Non-Constitutional bodies. 

3 Levels of Government:

  1. Government of the Union
  2. Government of the State
  3. Local Government

Theory of SoP(Separation of Powers):

Power of Government is separated into 3 wings, namely:

  1. Legislature
  2. Executive
  3. Judiciary



  1. It comprises of democratically elected representatives of people.
  2. It is the law making body, also known as Parliament.


  1. The Executive emerges out of the Legislature ie. Parliament elects the Executive out of its members.
  2. It executes the law and conducts public and national affairs.


  1. The Judiciary is independent of Legislature and Executive.
  2. Its function is to keep a check over the other organs of state (Legislature and Executive) and to maintain supremacy of the constitution.  


See the source image


Union Executive:

It comprises:

  1. The President
  2. The Vice-President
  3. The Prime Minister
  4. The Council of Ministers(Art. 74-75)
  5. Attorney General of India( Art. 76)

The President:

  1. He is the head of the state and is democratically elected.
  2. Art. 52-73 deals with the President and Vice-President.

 Attorney General of India:

  1. He is the first law officer of the Government of India.


  1. It consists of Supreme Court at central level.


It consists of:

  1. President
  2. Council of States( Rajya Sabha)
  3. House of the People( Lok Sabha)

Council of States(Rajya Sabha):

  1. It is the Upper House of the Parliament.
  2. It represents states of the Indian Union.
  3. It consists of 2 classes of members,
    1. Nominated members
    2. Elected members which are representatives of States and of 2 Union Territories
  4. The maximum strength of the house is 250, out of which 12 nominated by President and 238 are elected members.

House of the People(Lok Sabha):

  1. It is the Lower House of Parliament.
  2. Also called as popular House of Parliament as its members are directly elected by the people.
  3. The maximum strength of this house can be 552, out of which 530 are from states, 20 from Union Territories, and 2 nominated by President from the Anglo-Indian community.
  1. Governor is the head of the government of the state and is not elected but rather appointed by the President.
  2. State Judiciary consists of High Court.

State Executive:

It consists of :

  1. Governor(Art. 153-162)
  2. Chief Minister
  3. Council of Ministers(Art. 163-164)
  4. Advocate General of State(Art. 165)
    1. He is the first law officer of state.

State Legislature:

  1. It consists of Governor and one or two houses.
  2. Legislature in the state is either bicameral ( consisting of 2 houses) or unicameral( consisting of 1 house called Legislative Assembly).
  3. Legislature in Jammu&Kashmir, Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh is bicameral.

Legislative Councils(Vidhan Parishad):

  1. It is a permanent body,like Rajya Sabha. It is not subject to dissolution but after every 2 years, 1/3rd of its members retire.
  2. Its strength should not be less than 40 and shall not exceed 1/3rd of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State.

Legislative Assembly(Vidhan Sabha):

  1. Members of the Legislative Assembly are chosen directly by the people on basis of the adult franchises from territorial constituencies in the state.
  2. Its tenure is 5 years but can be dissolved by Governor before that.
  3. Its strength should not exceed 500 and should not be less than 60.
  4. By 73rd Amendment Act, rural local government called Panchayati Raj Institutions came into existence.
  5. By 74th Amendment Act, urban local bodies called Municipalities came into existence.


  1. Panchayati raj institutions follow 3 tier system at the village level, intermediate level, district levels. In states with a population of fewer than 20 lakhs, it is not mandatory to have the intermediate level.
  2. All members, at all levels, should be elected directly by the people from the territorial constituencies.


  1. Municipalities are of 3 types:
    1. Nagar Panchayat, for a transitional area that is an area which is being transferred from rural area to an urban area.
    2. Municipal Corporation for a smaller urban area.
    3. Municipal Corporation for a larger urban area.
  2. Members elected directly by the people from territorial constituencies


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