Geography FAQs For UPSC / HCS
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Geography FAQs For UPSC / HCS

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Geography FAQs For UPSC / HCS

This article will give you an insight into frequently asked question in the geography UPSC / HCS exam. The explanation is also given for better understanding.

Geography FAQs


Q1. Which among the following are the reasons for unequal distribution of temperature across the surface of the ocean? 

  1. Distance from the Equator
  2. Distance from the land 
  3. Prevailing winds 
  4. Oceanic Currents

Select the correct answer

(a) 1 and 3 only

(b) 2 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3, and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Ans: (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Explanation: Statement 1 is correct: If the ocean is the nearby the equator, its surface waters will be warmer compared to that of surface waters nearby polar regions. This is because of incoming solar radiation. Statement 2 is correct: The ocean/sea nearby land receives more heat due to their contact with land, hence oceans in the northern hemisphere are warmer compared to that of the southern hemisphere. Statement 3 is correct: Off-shore winds drive away warm surface waters from the coast, resulting in upwelling, whereas onshore winds pile up warm water near the coast, which raises the temperature. Statement 4 is correct: Warm ocean currents raise the temperature in the cold areas while cold currents decrease the temperature in warm ocean areas.

Q2. Folding is the result of: 

  1. Epeirogenic force 
  2. Coriolis force 
  3. Orogenic  force 
  4. Exogenic force

Choose from the following:

(a) 1& 2

(b) 1Only

(c) 4Only

(d) 3Only

Ans: (d) 3 Only

Explanation: The earth's surface experiences different types of forces. Orogenic forces take millions of years to build a mountain from the plane and sealed these forces due to interaction between tectonic plates, crumbled and pushed upward to form a mountain range. Thus folding is the result of orogenic force. Exogenic refers to external processes and phenomena that occur on or above the surface of the earth

Q3. Consider the following: 

1. Geothermal energy

2. Gravitational force 

3. Plate movements

4. Rotation of earth

5. Revolution of earth

Which of the above are responsible for bringing dynamic changes on the surface of the earth?

(a) 1,2,3 and 4

(b) 1,3,4 and 5

(c) 2,4,5 

(d)  1,2,3,4,5 

Ans: (d)

Explanation: The dynamic changes on the earth's surface are caused by majorly endogenic forces. In general, the origin of endogenic forces is a thermal asymmetry in the inner part of the earth and compression - expansion of rocks. In addition to these, gravitational force, rotation of the earth, and its revolution are also responsible for changes on the earth's surface.

Q4. Consider the following statements. 

  1.   Sedimentary rocks are formed at the earth's surface by the hydrological system.
  2.   The formation of sedimentary rock involves the weathering of pre-existing rocks. 
  3.   Sedimentary rocks contain fossils 
  4.   Sedimentary rocks typically occur in layers 

Which of these statements are correct:

(a)  1 and 2

(b)  1 and 4

(c)  2,3 and 4

(d)  All of the above

Ans:  (d) All of the above 

Explanation: Sedimentary rocks are formed by the accumulation of sediments. These sediments or debris accumulate in low-lying areas like lakes. The ocean is largely responsible for transporting sediments to locations where it accumulates. The sedimentary materials may be formed from eroded fragments of other pre-existing rocks or even from the remains of plants or animals and fossils, most frequently found in sedimentary rocks, which are formed in layers called strata.

Q5. Sandstone is flaky rock because: 

(a)  It is formed in desert 

(b)  It is formed due to heat 

(c)  It is formed under water 

(d)  It is formed on the mountain           

Ans: (c)

Explanation: Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed of sand-sized grains of minerals, rock, and organic materials. The sandstone forms under the sea or in low-lying areas. It converts into quartz, which is typically the most abundant type of sand grain present in sandstone. 

Q6. Consider the following statements:  

  1. The mid-day sun never shines overhead on any latitude beyond the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
  2. The mid-day sun is exactly overhead at least once a year on all latitudes in between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.  
  3. The region between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn is called a torrid zone. 
  4. The area between tropic of cancer and tropic of Capricorn receives maximum solar heat.

Which of the following is/are true.

(a) 1 ,2,3

(b) 1 & 2

(c) 2,3,4

(d) 1,2,3,4

Ans:   (d) 1,2,3,4

Explanation: Self Explanatory.

Q7. Please consider the following statements.

  1. The areas bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic circle, and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic circle is called a temperate zone. 
  2. Areas lying beyond the Arctic circle and the Antarctic circle is called the Frigid zone.

Which of the following is /are true? {}

(a) 1 Only

(b) 2 Only

(c) Both

(d) Neither

Ans: (c) Both

Explanation: The areas bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic circle, and the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic circle, have moderate temperatures. These are, therefore, called temperate zones. Areas lying beyond the Arctic circle and the Antarctic circle are very cold. Here the sun does not rise much above the horizon. Therefore, its rays are always slanting. These are, therefore, called frigid zones.

Q8. Which one of the following continents was not a part of Gondwanaland: 

  1. North America
  2. South America
  3. Africa 
  4. Australia 

Chose from the following.

(a) 1 &2

(b) 2 & 3

(c) 1 Only

(d) 2 Only

Ans:  (c)1 Only

Explanation: Gondwana included most of the landmasses of today’s southern hemisphere including Antarctica, southern America, Africa, Madagascar, Australia continent as well as Arabian Peninsula in the Indian subcontinent. North America is not a part of Gondwanaland

Q9. The ring of fire is associated with: 

  1.   Earthquake 
  2.   Volcanoes
  3.   Pacific ocean 
  4.   Forest fires 

Choose your answer:

(a)  1, 2 and 3

(b)  2 and 3

(c)  2 and 4

(d)  All of the above

Ans: (a) 1,2, &3

Explanation: The ring of fire is the region in the Pacific ocean influenced by volcanic activity and earthquakes. Approximately 68% of the world's earthquakes occur along the ring of fire. The region of the Ring of Fire includes the vast seismic zone of Chile, California, Alaska, Japan, Philippines, New Zealand, and part of the central ocean. 

Q10.  Which of the following disasters does not come under the category of terrestrial disaster?

(a) Earthquakes

(b) Volcanic Eruptions

(c) Hailstorm

(d) Landslides

Ans: (c) Hailstorms

Explanation: Hailstorm comes under the category of atmospheric disaster

Q11. Consider the following statements.

  1. Geomatics is the field of gathering, storing, processing, and delivering geographic information.
  2. Life on earth would not have been possible without the earth’s magnetic field

   Which of the following is true?

(a)1 Only

(b) 2 Only

(c) Both

(d) Neither

Ans: (c) Both

Explanation: Statement 1 is correct. The magnetic field which protects the earth’s atmosphere from the harmful solar wind certainly responsible for the survival of life on the planet.

Q12. Consider the following statements:

  1. The high temperature below the crust is attributed to the disintegration of the radioactive substances primarily in the core and the mantle.  
  2. The nuclear fusion reaction is responsible for more than half of Earth’s total heat.

Which of the following is true?

(a)1 Only

(b) 2 Only

(c) Both

(d) Neither

Ans: (d) Neither

Explanation: The type of nuclear reaction that is responsible for Earth’s heat is Nuclear fission and not fusion. For nuclear fusion to occur there must be far more pressure and temperature inside the earth. The earth is not massive enough to cause such conditions.  The radioactive decay mainly happens in the Earth Crust and the mantle.

Q13. Which of the following is/are sources of the Earth’s heat. 

  1. Tidal Friction 
  2. Primordial Heat 
  3. Earth’s rotation and revolution 
  4. Radioactive decay 

Choose from the following:

(a) 1 & 2

(b) 1,2,3

(c) 2 &3

(d) 1,2,4

Ans: (d) 1,2,4

Explanation: The radioactive decay in the earth's crust and mantle, Primordial heat, and tidal friction are major contributing factors to the Earth’s heat. Primordial heat is the internal heat energy accumulated within a planet during its first few million years of evolution.

Q14. Which of the following countries does not have a border with Afghanistan?

(a) Iran                              

(b) Georgia                     

(c) Turkmenistan         

(d) Uzbekistan

Ans: (b) Georgia

Explanation: Self-explanatory

Q15. Which type of lake is formed by volcanic activities?

(a) Caldera lake             

(b) Karst lake                 

(c) Lagoon                        

(d) Fresh water lake

Ans: (a) Caldera Lake

Explanation: Self-explanatory

Q16. Consider the following statements regarding asteroids:

  1. Asteroids are rocky debris of varying sizes orbiting the sun.
  2. Most of the asteroids are small but some have a diameter as large as 1000 km
  3. The orbit of asteroids lies between the orbits of Jupiter and Saturn 

Identify the correct statements: 

(a) 1,2 and 3 

(b) 2 and 3 

(c) 1 and 2 

(d) 1 and 3 

(e) 1, 2 और 3

Ans: (c)

Explanation: The group of small pieces of rock revolving around the sun between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter call asteroids. Asteroids vary in size and some could be 1000 km in diameter. 

 Q17. Which of the following rainfall is highly localized which occurs mainly during summer?

(a) Convectional rainfall

(b) Orographic rainfall 

(c) Frontal rainfall 

(d) Cyclonic rainfall 

Ans: Option A is correct.

Explanation: Convectional rainfall is highly localized which occur mainly during summer

Q18. Which of the following statements is/are correct about volcanoes? 

  1. Volcanoes are common along the transform boundaries. 
  2. The temperature difference between the inner layers and the outer layers of the earth gives rise to convectional current and subsequently volcano along divergent and convergent boundaries. 

(a) 1 Only

(b) 2 Only

(c) Both

(d) Neither

Ans: (b) 2 Only

Explanation: Volcanoes are common in convergent and divergent plate boundaries. At the convergent boundary, the subduction of the denser plate creates magma at high pressure which will escape to the surface in the form of violent eruptions. At the divergent boundary, The earthquakes may expose fault zones through which magma may escape. Molten, semi-molten, and sometimes gaseous material appears on earth at the first available opportunity.

Q19.  Consider the following statements. 

  1. Stratovolcanic Lava is basic
  2. Shield lava is acidic
  3. Andesitic Lava is otherwise called composite lava

 Which of the following is/are False?

(a) 1 Only

(b) 1 & 2

(c) 2 & 3

(d) 1,2,3

Ans: (b) 1 & 2

Explanation:   Andesitic or Composite or Stratovolcanic lava is Acidic due to the abundant presence of  Silica Basaltic or Shield lava is basic as Silica presence is less.

Q20. On the earth, originally there was only one huge landmass which is known as : 

(a) Panthalassa

(b) Pangea

(c) Laurasia

(d) Gondwanaland

Ans: (b) Pangea

Explanation: Originally the huge landmass on earth was unified and known as Pangaea. Pangea was the supercontinent.

Q21. Consider the following statements: 

  1. The Richter scale is a logarithmic scale and so an increase of one magnitude unit represents a factor of 10 in amplitude.
  2. Each integer reading of the Richter scale has an energy hundred times than the previous integer reading.

Which of the statements above are correct: 

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) Both

(d) None

Ans: (a) 1 only

Explanation: The intensity of earthquakes is measured on the Richter scale and the Mercalli scale. In 1935, Seismologist Charles Francis Richter of the California Institute of technology developed the Richter magnitude scale. It is based on a logarithmic scale which is mentioned as 1 to 10 on the scale. Each number of seismograph represents 10 times amplitude, 32 times energy.

Q22. Which grasslands are mainly found in Argentina and Uruguay?

(a) Veld

(b) Pampas

(c) Savannah

(d) Steppes

Ans: (b) Pampas

Explanation: Self-explanatory

Q23. Which of the following rivers do not flow into the Arabian Sea? 

1. Tungabhadra 

2. Sabarmati 

3. Krishna 

4. Narmada

(a) 1 & 2

(b) 1 & 3

(c) 2 & 3

(d) 3 & 4

Ans: (b) 1 & 3

Explantion: Self-explantory

Q24. Penang is a tributary of which of the following rivers in India?

(a) Kaveri 

(b) the Godavari 

(c) Krishna 

(d) Narmada 

Ans: (b) the Godavari

Explanation: Self-Explanatory

Q25. “Duncan Pass” is located in which of the following Union Territories / States?

(a) Himachal Pradesh 

(b) Daman & Diu 

(c) Andaman & Nicobar Islands 

(d) Uttarakhand 

Ans: (c)  Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Explanation: Duncan Passage is a strait in the Indian Ocean. It is about 48 km (30 mi) wide; it separates Rutland Island part of Great Andaman) to the north, and Little Andaman to the south. West of Duncan Passage is the Bay of Bengal; east is the Andaman Sea

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