geography HCS mains optional syllabus
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geography HCS mains optional syllabus

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geography HCS mains optional syllabus

HCS Syllabus: Geography HCS Mains Optional Syllabus

HPSC HCS mains optional subject syllabus


1. Physical Geography

(i) Geomorphology: Origin and evolution of the earth's crusts. Earth movements. Endogenic and exogenic forces. Physical condition of earth‘s interior. Geosynclines. Continental drift. Isostasy. Plate tectonics. Mountain building. Volcanicity. Earthquakes. Concepts of geomorphic cycles. Weathering and erosion. Cycle of erosion. Landforms associated with fluvial, arid, glacial, coastal and karst.

(ii) Climatology: Temperature and pressure belts of the world. Insolation and heat budget of the earth. Planetary and local winds. Monsoons and jet streams. Air masses and fronts. Temperate and tropical cyclones. Types and distribution of precipitaton. Koppen's and Thornthwaite's classification of world climate. Hydrological cycle.

(iii) Oceanography: Relief of ocean floors. Temperature and salinity of the oceans. Nature, classification and world distribution of ocean deposits. Ocean currents and tides. Marine resources–biotic, mineral and energy resources. Coral reefs and atolls.

(iv) Biogeography: Genesis of soils. Classification and distribution of soils. Soil profile. Soil erosion and conservation. Problems of deforestation and conservation measures. Social forestry, agro-forestry. Environmental degradation and conservation. Ecosystems and their management. Global warming. Reduction in bio-diversity and
depletion of forests.

2. Human Geography

(i) Economic Geography: World agriculture–typology of agricultural regions. Agricultural inputs and productivity. Food and nutritions problems. Famine–causes, effects and remedies. Green revolution - its nature and consequences for the third world countries. Second generation problems of green revolution and approaches to solve these problems. Diversification in agriculture. W.T.O. and its impact on Indian agriculture. Factors affecting agricultural location. A critical appraisal of Von Thunen‘s theory of agricultural location. Major sectors of economic
activity (primary, secondary and tertiary). A detailed discussion of their nature and basic principles. Transporation as a factor in the choice and location of economic activities. Ullman‘s model of spatial interaction. Factors affecting
industrial location (with special reference to precurement and distribution costs). A critical appreciation of Weber‘s
theory of industrial location. Trends in location and distribution of the following industries : iron and steel, cotton
textiles, automobiles, petorlium refineries, aluminium. Major industrial regions of the world.

(ii) Population and settlement Geography: Growth and distribution of world population. Causes and consequences of migration. World population problems. Types and patterns of rural settlements. Hierachy of urban settlements. Concept of primate city and rank-size rule. Functional classificatioin of towns. Sphere of urban influence. Rural-urban fringe. Satellite towns. Problems of urbanisation. Spatial organisation of settlements with an introduction to the Charistaller‘s central place theory. 


1. Geography of India

(i) Physical Setting: Structure and relief. Mechanism of Indian monsoons. Tropical cyclones and their consequences and western disturbances. Floods and droughts. Climatic regions. Natural vegetation, soil types and
their distributions.

(ii) Resources: Fishries. Surface and groud water. Production and future prospects of energy resources. Energy crisis. Minerals (iron ore, manganese, mica) . Biotic resources, their distribution, utilisation and conservation.

(iii) Agriculture: Infrastructure–irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power. Institutional factors–land holdings, land tenure and land reforms. Agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability. Agro-and social-forestry. Green revolution and its socio-economic and eclogical implications. Significance of dry farming.  Livestock resources and white revolution. A detailed study of the distribution and production of wheat, rice, sugarcane, cotton and tea. Regional imbalance in levels of agricultural development.

(iv) Industry and transport: Evolution of industries. Locational factors of cotton textiles, sugar, jute, iron and steel, fertiliser, paper and automobile industries. Industrial complexes and industrial regionlisation. New industrial policy. Multinationals and liberalisation. Road, railway, inland waterway, airway networks and their complementary roles in regional development. Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade. Trade balance. Free trade and export promotion zones. Developments in communication technology and its impact on economy and society.

(v) Cultural Setting: Major tribes and their problems. Growth, distribution and density of population. Demographic attributes–sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, fertility and mortality and longevity. Migratioin (inter-regional, intra-regional and international,rural–urban migration) and associated problems, population problems and policies.

(vi) Settlements: Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements. Urban development. Morphology of Indian cities. Functional classification of Indian cities, conurbations and metropolitan regions. Urban sprawl, slums and associated problems. Town planning. Problems of urbanisation.

(vii)Regional Planning: Five Year Plans. Integrated rural development programmes. Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning. Command area development. Watershed management. Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development.

(viii) Contemporary Issues: Environmental hazards–landslides, earthquakes, epidemics. Issues related to environmental pollution. Population explosion and food security. Environmental degradation. Problems of agrarian
and industrial unrest. Regional disparities in economic development. Concept of sustainable growth and development. International boundary of India and related issues. Disputes on sharing of water resources. India and
geopolitics of Indian Ocean.