electrical engineering HCS mains optional syllabus
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electrical engineering HCS mains optional syllabus

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electrical engineering HCS mains optional syllabus

HCS Syllabus: Electrical Engineering HCS Mains Optional Syllabus 


1. Electrical Circuits–Theory and Applications
Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; Circuit analysis methods; nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis : RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis, resonant circuits and applications; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two-port networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions. Elements of networks synthesis. Filter-theory : design and applications. Active filters. Circuit simulation.

2. Signals & Systems

Representation of continuous–time and discrete-time signals& systems; LTI systems; convolution; impulse response; time domain analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Laplace
transform, Z-transform, Transfer function.

3. E.M. Theory
Maxwell's equations, wave propagation in bounded media. Boundary conditions, reflection and refraction of plane waves. Transmission lines : Distributed parameter circuits, travelling and standing waves, impedance matching.

4. Analog Electronics
Characteristics and equivalent circuits (large and small-signals) of Diode, BJT, JFET and MOSFET. Diode circuits : Clipping, clamping, rectifier. Biasing and bias stability. FET amplifiers. Amplifiers ; single and multistage, differential, operational, feedback and power. Analysis of amplifiers; frequency-response of amplifiers. Oscillators ; criterion for oscillation. Power supplies.

5. Digital Electronics
Boolean algebra; minimisation of Boolean functions; logic gates; digital IC families (DTL, TTL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, multiplexers and decoders. Sequential circuits; latches and flip-flops, counters and shift-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits, ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories.

6. Energy Conversion
Principles of electromechanical energy conversion : Torque and emf in rotating machines. DC machines ; characteristics and performance analysis; starting and speed control of motors. Transformers : Principles of operation and analysis; regulation, efficiency; 3-phase transformers, 3-phase induction machines and synchronous machines; characteristics and performance analysis; speed control. Special machines: Stepper motors, brushless dc motors, permanent magnet motors, single-phase motors; FHP.

7. Power Electronic and Electric Drives
Semiconductor power devices: diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and MOSFET–static characteristics and principles of operation; triggering circuits; phase control rectifiers; bridge converters; fully-controlled and halfcontrolled; principles of thyristor choppers and inverters; basic concepts; of speed control of dc motor drives.

8. Analog Communication
Signal to noise ratio. Amplitude modulation; DSB, DSB-SC and SSB. Modulators and Demodulators; Phase and Frequency modulation: PM & FM signals; narrows and FM; generation & detection of FM and PM. Superhetrodyne receivers, AM receivers, communication receivers, FM receivers. Signal to noise ratio calculation for AM and FM receivers.


1. Control Systems
Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop system; principles and applications of feed-back. LT1 systems; time-domain and transform-domain analysis. Stability; Routh Hurwitz
criterion, root-loci, Nyquist's criterion, Bode-plots, Design of lead-lag compensators. Proportional . State-variable
representations and analysis of control systems. Principles of discrete-control systems.

2. Electrical Engineering Materials
Electrical/electronic behaviour of materials ; conductivity; free-electrons and band-theory; intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductor, p-n junction, solar cells, superconductivity; Dielectric behaviour of materials, polarization phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials; behaviour and application.

3. Microprocessor and Microcomputers
8-bit microprocessor; architecture, CPU, module design, memory interfacing, I/O, peripheral controllers. 

4. Measurement and Instrumentation
Error analysis, measurement of current voltage, power, energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments; multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter, spectrum-analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers ; thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain-guage, piezo-electric crystal. Use of transducers in measurements of non-electrical quantities. Dataacquisition systems.

5. Power Systems; Analysis and Control
Steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables; principles of active and reactive power transfer and distribution; per-unit quantities; bus admittance and impedance matrices; load flow; volatage control and power factor correction; economic operation; symmetrical components, analysis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults. Concepts of system stability; swing curves and equal area criterion. Static VAR system. Basic concepts of HVDC transmission. Active power control. Frequency control. Economic dispatch.

6. Power System Protectiion
Principles of overcurrent, differential and distance protection. Concept of solid state relays. Circuit brakes Computer aided protection; introduction; line, bus, generator, transformer protection; numeric relays.

7. Non-conventional Energy Sources and Energy Management Introduction to the energy problem; difficulties with conventional energy sources. Wind-Energy; Basics of Wind turbine aerodynamics; wind-energy conversion systems and their integration into electrical grid. Solar-Energy: Thermal conversion photo-voltaic conversion. Waveenergy. Importance of Energy Management: Energy audit; energy economics; discount rate, payback period, internal rate of return, life cycle costing.