Drainage System Of India
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Drainage System Of India
The Indian drainage system consists of many rivers. It is divided into two major groups: The Himalayan Rivers and The Peninsular Rivers. Let's discuss The Drainage System Of India. The whole topic is divided into some parts, So this is Part-1. This part will take you through:
- Drainage System
- Water divides between India
- Difference between river basin and watershed
- Drainage pattern
- The flow of water through well-defined channels is known as drainage and the network of such channels is called a drainage system.
- The drainage system is a system of rivers that is spread over a particular area with a specific water capacity
- The area drained by a single river system called a drainage basin.
- Drainage basins are also known as catchment, catchment areas, catchment basins, drainage areas, and river basins.
- The drainage pattern of an area depends upon geological time period, nature and structure of rock, topography, slope, amount of water flowing and the periodicity of the floor.
- The world's largest drainage basin is of Amazon River and the Ganga River has the largest basin in India.
- Water Divide - Any elevated area, such as a mountain or an upland that separates two drainage basins. Such an upland is called a water divide.
- It is also called the Drainage divide.
- Water divide is usually a ridge or a high platform.
Water divides between India
In India, there are mainly four water divides:
- Aravallis- Water divide for Luni river
- Himalayas- Water divide for Indus river
- Satpura and Vindhya Range- Water divide for Narmada and Tapi
- Western Ghats- Water divide for peninsular rivers
Difference between river basin and watershed
- Though both river basins and watersheds are areas of land that drain to a particular water body, such as a lake, stream, river, or estuary.
- The term watershed is used to describe a smaller area of land that drains to a smaller stream, lake, or wetland. There are many smaller watersheds within a river basin.
- Example: watershed of Yamuna + watershed of Chambal + watershed of Gandak + …. = Drainage basin of Ganga
- The catchments of large rivers are called river basins while those of a small rivulet and rails are known as watersheds.
- Watersheds are small in the area while the basins cover a large area.
- River basins and watersheds are marked by Unity, what happens in one part of the basin or watershed directly affects the other parts and the unit as a whole. That is why, they are accepted as the most appropriate micro, meso, or macro planning figure
There is a various pattern which is followed by the various river basin in accordance with their water capacity and flow pattern.
1. Dendritic Drainage Pattern:-
- The drainage pattern resembling the branches of a tree is known as dendritic drainage.
- This is an irregular tree branch-shaped pattern.
- There are many contributing streams, which are then joined into the tributaries of the main river.
- A dendritic pattern develops in a terrain that has uniform lithology, and where faulting and jointing are insignificant.
- Examples: Rivers of northern Plains.
2. Trellis Drainage Pattern:-
- When the primary tributaries of a river flow parallel to each other and secondary tributaries join them at right angles the pattern is known as Trellis.
- Examples: The old folded mountains of the Singhbhum (Chotanagpur Plateau)
3. Angular Drainage Pattern:-
- Angular drainage patterns form where bedrock joints and faults intersect at more acute angles than rectangular drainage patterns. Angles are both more and less than 90 degrees.
- This pattern is common in Himalayan foothill regions.
4. Rectangular Drainage Pattern:-
- The pattern formed in which the mainstream bends at right angles and the tributaries join at right angles creating rectangular patterns.
- Example: Streams found in the Vindhya Mountains.
5. Radial Drainage Pattern:-
- When the river originates from a hill and flows in all directions, the drainage pattern is known as Radial drainage.
- Also known as a centrifugal pattern.
- A good example of a radial drainage pattern is provided by the rivers originating from the Amarkantak Mountain.
- Rivers like Narmada, Son, and Mahanadi originating from Amarkantak Hills flow in different directions and are good examples of radial patterns.
6. Annular drainage Pattern:-
- In an annular drainage pattern streams follow a roughly circular or concentric path along a belt of weak rock, resembling in plan a ringlike pattern.
- Example: This is not a very common drainage pattern in India. Some examples of this are however found in Pithoragarh (Uttarakhand), Nilgiri Hills in Tamil Nadu, and Kerala.
7. Parallel drainage pattern:-
- Rivers flow parallel to each other for a long distance. E.g. River Ganga and Yamuna flow parallel to each other before joining Allahabad.
- The tributaries seem to be running parallel to each other in a uniformly sloping region.
- Example: Rivers of lesser Himalayas and rivers originating in the Western Ghats that flow into the Arabian Sea.
8. Centripetal drainage pattern:-
- When the rivers discharge their waters from all directions in a lake or depression the pattern is known as centripetal drainage.
- Examples: Streams of Ladakh, Tibet, and the Bagmati and its tributaries in Nepal.
TO BE CONTINUED...
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