UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam: Psychology Optional 2018 Paper-II
Baljit Dhaka
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UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam: Psychology Optional 2018 Paper-II

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UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam: Psychology Optional 2018 Paper-II

Marks-250                                                                                                                                        Time: Three Hours

Question Paper Specific Instructions:

Please read each of the following instructions carefully before attempting questions.

  • There are EIGHT questions divided into two sections.
  • A candidate has to attempt FIVE questions in all.
  • Questions no 1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, THREE are to be attempted choosing at least ONE from each section.
  • The number of marks carried by a question /part is indicated against it.
  • Word limit in questions, wherever specified should be adhered to.
  • Attempts of questions shall be counted in chronological order. Unless struck off, attempt of a question shall be counted even if attempted partly. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the answer book must be clearly struck off.


1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10x5=50 marks

1. (a) Bring out the similarities and differences between intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests. 10 marks

1. (b) How does stress contribute to the causation of physical illness ? Discuss the role of optimism as factor moderating the impact of stress. 10 marks

1. (c) In the context of positive social change differentiate between first-order and second-order change. Why is the second-order change often the focus of community psychology?  10 marks

1. (d) What role do cultural factors play in rehabilitation of senior citizens with possible memory and cognitive decline ? Comment on the significance of family and social support in such rehabilitation in India. 10 marks

1. (e) In what specific ways can psychologists work for empowering the communities that have been marginalized by the society? 10 marks

2. (a) Discuss the efficacy of systematic desensitization in reducing clients' phobic reactions. Illustrate your answer with suitable example. 15 marks

2. (b) Explain the ctiology of manic-depressive disorder. Evaluate the suitability of therapeutic methods for the treatment of manic-depressive disorder. 15 marks

2. (c) Discuss the different steps in the construction and standardization of psychological tests. Illustrate your answer with suitable example. 20 marks

3. (a) How is giftedness identified and what are the issues in such identification in Indian context ? How is giftedness related to IQ and creativity? 15 marks

3. (b) Discuss the distinctive aspects of modern psychodynamic therapy. How can it be helpful in the treatment of diverse array of disorders? 15 marks

3. (c) Can effective teaching-learning be viewed as a process of collaborative construction of knowledge? What are the implications of such a view on classroom structure and management in Indian conditions? 20 marks

4. (a) Explain the nature of sensitivity training. Comment on its utility as an organizational development technique. 15 marks

4. (b) Discuss the role of social and environmental intervention in rehabilitation of the mentally challenged. Why are such interventions crucial in Indian settings? 15 marks

4. (c) Explain Herzberg's theory of work-motivation. Critically comment on its relevance in Indian context. 20 marks


5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10x5=50 marks

5. (a) Explain, using psychological framework, the impact of IT and mass media on the work-life in India. 10 marks

5. (b) What psychological factors act as barriers in the context of women's entrepreneurship? How can they be overcome? 10 marks

5. (c) Discuss the most commonly used techniques or skills psychologists teach to athletes for improving their performance. 10 marks

5. (d) Explain the psychosocial factors demotivating people from small family norms. 10 marks

5. (e) With some examples show how can indigenous knowledge systems be used in management of biodiversity and cultural diversity ? 10 marks

6. (a) How is disadvantage related to a social structure of hierarchy and discrimination ? What is its relationship with capability deprivation and poverty? 15 marks

6. (b) Discuss the relevance of frustration-aggression hypothesis in the context of caste prejudice in India. 15 marks

6. (c) Discuss some major factors of educational failure among tribal communities in India. Why must education of the disadvantaged emphasize development of selfefficacy and intrinsic motivation? 20 marks

7. (a) Explain how mass media contribute to acquisition and learning of aggressive and violent behaviour. Examine the relationship between exposure to erotica and aggressiveness. 15 marks

7. (b) Explain the psychosocial consequences of crowding and high population density. Suggest appropriate policies to deal with the related problems in Indian context. 15 marks

7. (c) Critically describe the role of cultural assimilation in facilitating/hindering social integration in India. Illustrate with suitable example. 20 marks

8. (a) Discuss the relationship between sex-role stereotyping, self-fulfilling prophesy and glass ceiling effect in Indian society. 15 marks

8. (b) What role can psychologist play in promoting psychological well being of defence personnel in the context of prolonged deprivational and stressful condition? 15 marks

8. (c) Explain the interrelationship among achievement motivation, entrepreneurial behaviour and economic development. Discuss critically as to whether achievement motivation can be enhanced through training. Cite relevant Indian studies. 20 marks