UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam: Geology Optional 2018 Paper-I
Baljit Dhaka

UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam: Geology Optional 2018 Paper-I

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UPSC Civil Services Mains Exam: Geology Optional 2018 Paper-I

Marks-250                                                                                                                                        Time: Three Hours

Question Paper Specific Instructions:

Please read each of the following instructions carefully before attempting questions.

  • There are EIGHT questions divided into two sections.
  • A candidate has to attempt FIVE questions in all.
  • Questions no 1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, THREE are to be attempted choosing at least ONE from each section.
  • The number of marks carried by a question /part is indicated against it.
  • Word limit in questions, wherever specified should be adhered to.
  • Attempts of questions shall be counted in chronological order. Unless struck off, attempt of a question shall be counted even if attempted partly. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the answer book must be clearly struck off.


Q1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10x5=50 marks

(a) "Geomorphology is intimately related to tectonics." Explain with suitable examples. 10 marks

(b) What are stream order and mean bifurcation ratio of a drainage basin? Discuss their significance in the morphometric analysis of a drainage basin. 10 marks

(c) Discuss about the Circum-Pacific volcanic belt. Which five countries have the highest volcanic threat in terms of human loss? 10 marks

(d) Differentiate between True Colour Composite (TCC) and False Colour Composite (FCC). Explain its importance in interpreting remote sensing images. 10 marks

(e) Write about different types of unconformities and their significance. 10 marks

Q2. (a) Describe a desert and discuss how a desert is classified. Discuss the morphology of a dune and conditions favouring formation of different dune types.  20 marks

(b) Describe the different satellite orbits and their relative advantages. 15 marks

(c) What are shear zones? Explain diagrammatically the transition from brittle fault to ductile shear at depth. 15 marks

Q3. (a) Describe different types of plate boundaries with suitable sketches. 20 marks

(b) Describe 'Spectral Signature' and add a note on the spectral reflectance pattern of rocks, vegetation and water bodies. 15 marks

(c) What are strain markers? Discuss their significance. 15 marks

Q4. (a) Discuss the mechanism of faulting. 20 marks

(b) Describe the different types of coastal landforms. 15 marks

(c) What are meteorites? Discuss different types of meteorites. 15 marks


Q5. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each: 10x5=50 marks

(a) Discuss the modes of fossilization of hard parts of an organism. 10 marks

(b) "Microfossils are superior to megafossils in correlation." Comment on the statement. 10 marks

(c) State the methods of groundwater exploration. 10 marks

(d) Explain the geological considerations for construction of roads in hilly terrain. 10 marks 

(e) Discuss the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary problem in the Indian geological context. 10 marks

Q6. (a) Give an account of evolutionary trends in Proboscidea. 20 marks

(b) Write short notes on the following: 15 marks
(i) Lower Gondwana Group
(ii) Karewa Group
(iii) Krol Group

(c) Give a succinct account of life during Vindhyan times. 15 marks

Q7. (a) What are the different types of landslides? Discuss their controlling measures. 20 marks

(b) Give a brief account of the stratigraphy of Mesozoic rocks of Kachchh. 15 marks

(c) Discuss the significance of fossils in paleoclimatic studies. 15 marks

Q8. (a) Discuss the geological considerations for selection of sites for bridges. 20 marks

(b) What do you understand by spring sanctuaries? Describe the various types of springs. 15 marks

(c) Discuss the stratigraphy of the Siwalik supergroup and comment on its vertebrate fossils. 15 marks