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Q1. Analyse the changing nature of workforce composition vis-a-vis rural-urban divide in India. (CSE 2020)

Ans: Worker-population ratio is an indicator which is used for analysing the employment situation in the country. This ratio is useful in knowing the proportion of population that is actively contributing to the production of goods and services of a country. If the ratio is higher, it means that the engagement of people is greater; if the ratio for a country is medium, or low, it means that a very high proportion of its population is not involved directly in economic activities.

Growth & Changing Structure of Employment 

  1. Distribution of workforce by industrial sectors shows substantial shift from farm work to nonfarm work. In 1972-73, about 74 per cent of the workforce was engaged in the primary sector and now this proportion has declined to below 50 per cent. 
  2. Casualisation of Workforce: People have moved from self-employment and regular salaried employment to casual wage work. Scholars call the process of moving from self-employment 

and regular salaried employment to casual wage work as casualisation of workforce. 

  1. Informalisation of Indian Workforce: Since the late 1970s, many developing countries, including India, started paying attention to enterprises and workers in the informal sector as employment in the formal sector is not growing. As the informal sector can be growth harbinger in the coming decade. 

Workforce Composition & Rural-Urban Divide 

  • Workforce Participation Rate: In 2011, the Workforce Participation Rate at all India level is 2:;.51%for females and 53.26% for males. While there is no rural-urban gap for males (53%), there is considerable rural- urban gap for females (rural-30%, urban-15.4%). 
  • Worker Population Ratio: As per NSS 2011-12, the Worker Population Ratio for females .s higher in rural areas (24.8%) than urban areas (14.7O/C).For males, the ratios in rural and urban areas are :4.3% and 54.6% respectively. Thus, a considerable gender gap exists in both rural and urban areas and the gap is higher in urban areas.
  • Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR):The LFPR of females (rural: 25.3%,urban: 15.5%)is lower than that of males (rural: 55.3%,urban: 56.3%)in both rural and urban areas (NSS 2011-12). 
  • Unemployment Rate: Unemployment Rate (UR) is more for females than males 15 years and above in both rural and urban areas with the gap very wide for the urban. Maximum Unemployment Rate has been reported in Andaman &Nicobar Islands (30.8%), followed by Jammu and Kashmir (25.7%). Focus should be better utilization of the demographic dividend of the country towards achieving objectives of doubling farmers' income, achieving sustainable development goals and serving the needs of the lowest spectrum of the society.

Q2. Provide a reasoned account on emerging conurbations in India and explain with suitable examples the problems associated with it. (CSE-2019)

Ans: The term conurbation was coined by Patrick Geddes in 1915 and applied to a large area of urban development that resulted from the merging of originally separate towns or cities. It is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area. In most cases, a conurbation is a polycentric urbanised area, in which transportation has developed to link areas to create a single urban labour market or travel to work area. For example, Greater London, Manchester, Chicago and Tokyo are examples of major conurbation across the world. 

Emerging Conurbations in India 

  • Conurbations are associated with a specific stage of urban development. Urban centres that have poor contact with neighbouring towns in their initial stage of growth may later emerge as conurbations due to developments in industries, trade and transport. 
  • It may develop due to the expansion of a metropolitan city (Delhi National Capital Region (NCR), for instance); or two expanded cities may form a conurbation; or more than two city-level centres may coalesce to form a conurbation. 
  • A conurbation can have various miscellaneous industries operating in it which rely on the reserves of labour, excellent transport, etc. in the conurbation. E.g. Kolkata-Howrah region. 
  • Owing to the cheap and excellent transport facilities, a conurbation serves as a shopping centre for the hinterland surrounding it. Example: Delhi-Ambala region across the National Highway 1.

Example: The National Capital Region (NCR) is a name for the coordinated planning region which encompasses the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi as well as several surrounding districts in the neighbouring states of Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. However, since not all of the aforementioned areas are completely urban, the Delhi conurbation is actually limited to the NCT of Delhi and the neighbouring contiguous urban areas comprising Gurugram, Faridabad, Noida (Greater Noida) and Ghaziabad. 

The population of this conurbation was estimated at 21.7million in 2011.It's the world's third most populous urban agglomeration. Conurbations are growing at a rapid rate in India and other parts of the world and this has become a cause of concern for urban planning across the region. The frantic growth results in lack of proper infrastructural facilities and civic amenities to cater to the entire population. So, there is a need of huge investment in infrastructure to meet the demand posed by people in conurbation

Q3. Correlate the price of land, vertical growth of cities and the growth of slums in large cities of India. (CSE-2019) 

Ans: With rapid pace of urbanisation, there is constant increase in migration of population to cities leading to development of slums. Price of Land: Urban land prices have been rising in such proportions and to such levels that even as far back as in 1976, the United Nations Habitat Conference identified the sharply rising urban land prices 'as the most serious' of the many problems facing developing countries in the urbanisation process.

The situation in urban India reflects the same phenomenon and has not shown any improvement in recent years. 

Vertical Growth of Cities: Faced with scarce land, growing populations, the rise of modem service economies, and rising oil prices, urban planners in many developed countries are abandoning suburban auto dependent planning and increasingly favouring densely populated urban centres, with closely located residential areas and workplaces, good public transport and plentiful local shopping. 

Growth of Slums: Slums are a result of poverty and aspiration. Aspiration drives the poor to urban areas while poverty keeps their wages low. They are forced to live in slums. Every city needs low skilled and menial service providers such as carpenters, hawkers, maids and labourers. 

With the rapid pace of urbanisation there is huge pressure on limited land in urban places. Urban planners are focussing on development of vertical cities. Due to high land value, poor are unable to afford land. This ultimately leads to creation of densely populated urban centres with poor amenities leading to development of slums.

Q4. Describe the changing regional morphology of rural settlements in India. (CSE-2018)

Ans: The rural settlements are concerned with the degree of dispersion of the dwellings and the life is supported by land based primary economic activities. Rural people are less mobile and therefore, social relations among them are intimate. In India, the rural settlement varies with the diversity of climatic conditions in India. For e.g. compact or clustered village of a few hundred houses is a rather universal feature, particularly in the northern plains.

Types of Rural Settlements in India Clustered, agglomerated or nucleated: It is a compact or closely built up area of houses. In this type of village the general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms, barns and pastures. Semi-clustered or fragmented: These types of settlements may result from the tendency of clustering in a restricted area of dispersed settlement. More often such a pattern may also result from segregation or fragmentation of a large compact village. Hamleted: Sometimes settlement is fragmented into several units physically separated from each other bearing a common name. These units are locally called panna, para, palli, nagla, dhani, etc. in various parts of the country. This segmentation of a large village is often motivated by social and ethnic factors. Dispersed or isolated: This pattern of settlement appears in the form of isolated huts or hamlets of few huts in remote jungles, or on. small hills with farms or pasture on the slopes. Extreme dispersion of settlement is often caused by extremely fragmented nature of the terrain and land resource base of habitable areas.

Due to various reasons regional morphology is changing. Such as: • 

Large urban migration from rural areas for jobs, medical facility, etc. Shifting of medium and small scale industries is further changing the rural morphology. Change in social structure of society bridging the caste. hierarchy gap and therefore intermixing of settlements can be seen across various villages. Change in cropping pattern is also causing morphological changes in rural areas. Further subdivision of land areas is causing changes in rural settlements. 

Q5. Peri-urbanization has created enormous environmental problems. Discuss their causes and consequences with reference to the National Capital Region (N.C.R) of India. (CSE-2018)

Ans: As a specific and non-neutral space, a periurban area refers to a transition or interaction zone, where urban and rural activities are juxtaposed and landscape features are subject to rapid modifications, induced by human activities. Peri-urban areas, which might include valuable protected areas, forested hills, preserved woodlands, prime agricultural lands and important wetlands, can provide essential life support services for urban residents. The National Capital Region (NCR)is a coordinated planning region centered upon the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT) in India. The NCR and the associated National Capital Region Planning Board were created in 1985to plan the development of the region and to evolve harmonized policies for the control of land uses and development of infrastructure in the region. Prominent citiesofNCRinclude Delhi,Gurugram, Noida, Faridabad and Ghaziabad. 


Causes • Lack of job opportunities in small towns and villages. Poor business opportunities in other places and good facilities in metro cities act as a pull factor for migration. Share of female migration in India after marriage comprises more than half of the migrants. Poor availability of education facilities is a reason for migration and accounts for about two percent of all the migrants. 


Consequences • This has created excess pressure on natural resources. • Water scarcity is a big issue in the NCR region now. Transport facilities are not fully developed. This results in long duration traffic jams and loss of time during intra-city travel. Industrial sector is also badly affected due to which industries are shifting to other open locations which are cheap and affordable. Air pollution in the NCR region has become worse due to excessive population and vehicular pressure. 

Q6. Examine the driving forces of changing urban morphology of million-plus cities of India with suitable examples. (CSE-2018)

Ans: In India, out of the total population of 1210.2 million as on 1st March, 2011, about 377.1 million are in urban areas. The net addition of population in urban areas over the last decade is 91.0 million. The percentage of urban population to the total population of the country stands at 31.6.There has been an increase 3.35 percentage points in the proportion of urban population in the country during 2001-2011. Number of million plus Cities/urban agglomeration (VA) has increased from 35in Census 2001to 53in Census 2011. Driving forces of changing urban morphology of India's million plus cities are- • Large scale migration from rural to urban areas the Economic Survey of India 2017 estimates that the magnitude of inter-state migration in India was close to 9 million annually between 2011 and 2016. Census 2011 pegs the total number of internal migrants in the country (accounting for inter and intra-state movement) at a staggering 139 million. 

Migration within urban-urban migration is also bringing change in its morphology. Example Delhi-NCR people migrating to Gurugram, Noida, etc. Availability of employment and job opportunities is further boosting million-plus cities' growth. Shifting of housing areas outside and shifting of market places inside is also changing the morphology of cities.

Q7. Small towns in India have problems and prospects of their own. Elaborate.(CSE-20l7) 

Ans: In the developing world, small towns in India are neither traditional in their structure, nor do they represent modern settlement milieu. But they are empowered functionally by both the city . and the country. Small towns have a unique way of life governed by their size, site, demography, social ecology and economy. Unlike villages, small towns are bigger, have better links with their surrounding countryside but are having weaker community affairs and social set-up. RP. Mishra in Growth Foci approach, noted three weaknesses of conventional growth pole theory and extended the concept of growth pole to the concept of growth foci. 

Small towns have many problems such as- 

  • Lack of all-weather road connectivity. 
  • Lack of employment availability.
  • Poor presence of formal financial institutions. 
  • Lack of skilled workforce

But these small towns have many prospects as propounded by R. P. Mishra in his Growth Foci model. For example • Availability of local markets: • Decentralized economic model will have equitable regional growth. • Availability of large work force -Good for MSME sector. • Small towns were important settlements which accepted the migrants from rural areas. • Small towns can have a large number of socioeconomic development scenarios. • Cultural and historical heritage, which makes them potential targets of excursion and tourist visits.

Q8. Present a comparative analysis of geographical factors responsible for distribution of human settlements in Rajasthan desert and North-Easternregion of India. (CSE-2016)

Ans: Desert regions as well as hilly forested tracts of the country are characterised by dispersed or scattered settlements. Such settlements consist of units of small size which may consist of a single house to a small group of houses. It generally varies from two to seven huts.

Settlements in Rajasthan Desert Rajasthan desert region comprises of a very dry part the Marusthali region in the west and a semi desert region in the east with fewer sand dunes and slightly more precipitation. Thar desert is one of the densely populated deserts in the world. Close to 40% of Rajasthan lives in Thar desert region, mainly in the eastern part. The scrub forest region also supports settlements. Due to harsh climate and water scarcity, few settlements are supported in the Marusthali region. Natural (tobas) or man-made (johads), both types of small intermittent ponds are often the only source of water. Most families live in jhuggis or huts which are housing units formed with straws and thin wood-sticks. The wind storm proves these Jhuggis are unsustainable all the time. Some settlements are also seen near the seasonal stream channels of Ghaggar and Luni.

Settlements in the North East North Eastern region are characterised by adverse physiography and relief for human habitation with hilly terrain and densely forested tracts. The plains of Assam and Tripura are densely populated with compact settlements. In the plains, homes are built in close vicinity to each other and have lesser living space. Linear settlement pattern could be seen along Brahmaputra valley. The hilly states of Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya have small villages. The village size is characterised by . the availability of flat agricultural land. A small patch of cultivable land on a river terrace or a structural bench along a sloping mountain front attracts a small settlement. The villages in Nagaland are comparatively large in size which is attributed to the offence and defence requirement of the Naga society as inter village conflicts were quite common before British administration. In hilly areas of Mizoram, villages often cluster around high points which are invariably clan villages. The distribution of human settlements in Rajasthan desert and North East is heavily influenced (rather determined) by the geography of the region. However a more diverse settlement pattern could be seen in the North East as the region comprises various geomorphic features.

Q9. How do slums develop? Give concrete suggestions for their improvement. (CSE-2016) 

Ans: Slums develop due to a combination of demographic, social, economic and political reasons. (i) Rural-Urban migration: With rural agricultural distress, many people move to urban areas primarily because cities promise more jobs, education and health facilities, and diverse income opportunities than subsistence farming in rural areas.

However, some rural migrants may not find jobs immediately because of their lack of skills and increasingly competitive job markets, which leads to their financial shortage. Many rural-urban migrant workers cannot afford living in cities and eventually settle down in only affordable slums. Rural-Urban migration is because of both push (rural distress) and pull (urban opportunities) factors. (ii) Rapid urbanization: Rapid urbanization drives economic growth and causes people to seek working and investment opportunities in urban areas. However, the horizontal expansion of cities is limited and the growth of housing and infrastructure is much less when compared to the huge inflow of migrants. Local governments are unable to manage urbanization and migrant workers without an affordable place to live in, dwell in slums. (iii) Poor Housing Plans: Lack of affordable low cost housing and poor planning encourages the supply side of slums. Insufficient financial resources and lack of coordination at administrative level are major causes of poor housing plans. (iv) Colonialism and Segregation: Some of the slums in today's world are a product of urbanization brought by colonialism. Others were created because of segregation imposed by the colonialists. Eg: Dharavi, one of the largest slums in the world was founded in 1882during the British colonial era, and grew in part because of an expulsion of factories and residents from the peninsular city centre by the colonial government. Along with these, certain other factors like politics,social conflicts,and natural hazards could create more slums.

Suggestions for Slum Improvement

Slum up gradation could be done by gradual improvement of the informal areas and incorporation of those into the city itself through land services and recognition of the slum dwellers. Slum dwellers need to be provided with economic, social, institutional and community services which are available to other citizens.There services include land tenure, infrastructure development, education, transport and communication. The upgradation of slums is most effective when linked with other initiatives or goals such as poverty alleviation, health and education, environment and sanitation improvement and city wide infrastructure and transportation expansion. Removal, relocation and rehabilitation of the slum areas should be accorded priority. For this the govt. must undertake vigorous urban planning, city management and poverty reduction measures

Slum rehabilitation acts need to be modified as per the current needs (such as the Slum Rehabilitation Act, 1995 by Maharashtra government), together with a collaborative approach from bureaucrats, politicians, civil society groups and urban planners. 

Q10. Mono functional towns are economically vulnerable. Discuss. (CSE-2015)

Ans. Functionality of a town is basically determined by the type of function or sector it is engaged in. A criterion for monofunctional towns isif 40% or more population is engaged in a single sector of economy.

These towns are particularly economically vulnerable because: one, viability of the particular single base industry or sector.

Second, if the sector or industry is not performing well then the economy of these towns will go down or will not perform well.

Third, if the main sector is not functioning properly which is running the town then the sectors dependent on it, people dependent on it will get adversely affected.

Fourth, a particular type of labour force is required. If the desired labour force is not available in the town then in-migration from other regions will take place which might lead to friction between them and the native people.

In such a scenario the natives will be rendered jobless or will end up having job of lower rungs. Or in the extreme scenario they might out-migrate. 

Fifth, vital dependence on one sector only makes it vulnerable.

Despite this vulnerability, most of the newly settled towns are monofunctional and gradually they convert into bifunctional or multifunctional to make themselves sustainable. It is also a noted fact 'chat multifunctional towns grow much more rapidly as compared to monofunctional towns.

Q11. How has an inappropriate urban land use policy accounted for undesirable development in and around metropolitan cities? (CSE-2014)

Ans. As the urban population grows, the necessity for land and contruction to give shelter to the population increases correspondingly. But land procurement by insufficient and partial policies, is a very important problem for the development of our cities. 

Insufficient land availability leads to bottlenecks in infrastructure development rise of squatter settlements in marginalised locations and problem of location for business entities. Therefore it is pertinent to have a healthy urban policy for proper land-use planning.

To make a healthy and regular environment of urbanisation and providing necessary infrastructure and solving problems of squats are the main targets of land policies which are observed especially within planned period.

Most important profit of a true land policy is to provide zoned areas for people who want to live in the city. With this aim, inspection of urban development, limiting the urban usage of agricultural lands, preventing rapid and artificial increase of land and area prices and speculations, giving incomes required by land sales to public management are within the basic aims of urban land policies.

It should be noted that urban area is not only an area for construction. There are also a lot of other functions in the cities (industrial areas, green areas, open areas etc.). As the cities grow, variability increases, different cultures come together and their integration becomes an important problem. For this reason following points must be included in the urban policy.

Necessity and demands should be met in a short time, 

  • Opening areas for construction which will affect social and economic developments in a positive way and will not limit protection and development of natural resources. 
  • Protection of natural and environmental values and creating a sustainable urban development • Increasing the efficiency of present urban infrastructure and increasing the urban quality. 
  • Urban area necessity should not be assessed as a need only for low-income groups.

A land policy, which can fulfill land needs. of every income group, should be followed. Especially, in order to be able to control developments in metropolitan areas, producing areas for fulfilling every kind and type of land needs should be planned in the beginning itself.

Q12. Discuss the trends in emigration focusing on its major thrust. (CSE-2014)

Ans: India has one of the world's most diverse and complex migration histories. Since the 19th century, ethnic Indians have established communities on every continent as well as on islands in the Caribbean and the Pacific and Indian oceans. The composition of flows has evolved over time from mainly indentured labor in far-flung colonies to postwar labor for British industry to high-skilled professionals in North America and low-skilled workers in the Middle East. In addition, ethnic Indians in countries like Kenya and Suriname have migrated to other countries, a movement which is called secondary migration.

Factors responsible for emigration are: Push factors

Lack of employment or entrepreneurial opportunities; 

Lack of political or religious rights; 

Threat of arrest or punishment; 

Persecution or intolerance based on race, religion, gender or sexual orientation; 

Inability to find a spouse for marriage. 

Lack of freedom to choose religion, or to choose no religion; 

Shortage of farmland; hard to start new farms (historically); 

Oppressive legal or political conditions; 

Struggling or Failing economy; 

Military conscription policy, warfare or terrorism; 

Famine or drought; 

Cultural fights with other cultural groups; 

Expulsion by armed force or coercion; 


Climate-change induced migration.

Pull factors 

  • Favourable feedback sent by relatives or informants who have already moved there; chain migration 
  • Better opportunities for acquiring farms for oneself and one's children 
  • Availability of Cheap farmland 
  • Quick wealth (as in gold rush) 
  • More job opportunities 
  • Promise of higher pay 
  • Prepaid travel (as from relatives) 
  • Better welfare programmes

These factors lead to following pattern in emigration:

Migration to High-Wage Economies. 

In the first few decades after independence, unskilled, skilled, and professional workers (mostly male Punjabi Sikhs) migrated from India to the United Kingdom. This is commonly attributed to Britain's postwar demand for low-skilled labor, post-colonial ties and the United Kingdom's commonwealth immigration policy, which allowed any citizen of a Commonwealth country to live, work, vote, and hold public office in the United Kingdom.

Indian Student Migration. 

Five countries accounted for 90 percent of all Indian students abroad. The United States is by far the most important destination country, receiving more than half of the worldwide expatriate Indian students.

Secondary Migration of the Indian Diaspora 

Due to racial pressures and economic instability in some of the countries where Indians settled in the colonial era, many of them and their descendants went to India or to other countries. These types of flows, known as secondary migration, took place from East Africa, Fiji, and some Caribbean countries.

Temporary Labor Migration to West Asia 

Significant migration from India to the Persian Gulf began in the 1970s, following the oil boom. Since then, an increasing number of semi- and unskilled workers from South India have worked in the gulf countries on temporary migration schemes in the oil industry and in the services and construction sector. 

Q13. Define slums and explain their problems. (CSE-2013)

Ans. A "slum" is the compact settlement of at least 20 households with collection of poorly built tenements, mostly of temporary nature, crowded together usually with inadequate sanitary and drinking water facilities in unhygienic conditions.

The census defines a slum as "residential areas where dwellings are unfit for human habitation" because they are dilapidated, cramped, poorly ventilated, unclean, or "any combination of these factors which are detrimental to the safety and health" Roughly 1.37crore households, or 17.4% of urban Indian households lived in a slum in 2011.

Problems related to slums can be enumerated as follows: 

  1. They lack basic necessities which are necessary to sustain life like- clean drinking water, proper healthcare facilities, etc. 
  2. Since, they are not recognized by municipal corporations, hence they do not get clean water and health benefits from municipalities. 
  3. Languishing in poverty, slums become den of all sorts of illegal activities. Juvenile delinquency, prostitution, organized crime all find their roots in slums. 
  4. People in slums lack employment opportunities. 
  5. Various law and order problems can be attributed to slums proliferation.

Q14. Discuss the objectives of 'Vision 2020'in creation of a viable village complex in India for 'Inclusive Rural Development' programme. (CSE-2013)

Ans. Inclusive rural development means focusing on all those aspects of development which provide an enabling framework for growth of all sections of the society in all spheres. Itmainly emphasizes on: 

  • Making primary education available to all by increasing enrolment in schools. 
  • Infrastructure strengthening through electrification, telecommunication and transport connectivity.
  • Focus on sustainable development and removing regional disparity. 
  • Creation of self sufficiency through viable economic means and strengthening of rural institutions technically and financially. 
  • Planning decentralization and strengthening efficiency, transparency and accountability in governance. 
  • Improving the health aspects and focus on awareness generation. 

Q15. Demographic Dividend and its implications on Indian socio-economic development. (CSE-2013) 

Ans. In India, 27.5% of the population belongs to the 15-29years age group while 41.3%are  in the 13-35years age group. These age groups are termed as "Demographic Dividends". Though loosely defined, it integrates all the people within the age of 15 to 49. This can provide a fantastic opportunity for India to capitalize on its assets.

Implications on Indian socio-economic development: 

  • Rapid growth in the working age ratio in the BIMARUstates might hamper India's chances of fully capitalizing its demographic dividend without any appropriate policies and institutions. .
  • Rich states like Haryana, Punjab, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Himachal Pradesh will contain the most favorable age structure in 2026.They already have high HDI (Human Development Index) and are better prepared to reap the demographic dividend.
  • Inter-state migration is expected to surge ahead and might have consequences on Gender Disparity.
  • Health, family planning, education and economic policies need to be strengthened else "Demographic Dividend" has a fair chance to degenerate into "Demographic Deficit" and related law and order problems.

Q16. Evaluate the population policy of India and examine its relevance to the nation's population control. (CSE-20l2)

Ans. India is the first country which formally launched a family planning programme in 1952. But real analysis only started in the 3rd Five Year Plan. Short term targets in a fixed time frame were set up to control the growth rate of the population. In the 4th Plan, the birth rate was targeted to be lowered to 23 from 39 by 1978-79 through small family norms. 5th Plan integrated family planning services with welfare schemes. During the Emergency, programmes such as forced vasectomy were attempted to control the population. In subsequent years, age of marriage was reduced to 21 and 18 years for boys and girls respectively.

In the 6th Plan, services of health, family welfare and nutrition were integrated to achieve a birth rate target of 30 by the end of the same Plan. The 7th Plan set targets of birth rate at 29.1 and death rate at 10.4 through effective family planning programmes. 8th Plan started an incentive programme to achieve a birth rate of 26 and infant mortality rate of 70. 9th Plan emphasized on maternal and child health, availability of birth control mechanism, and legalization of abortion to achieve birth rate at 23 and IMRat50.

National Population Policy was announced in 2000. Its main aim was to have a standard two children per couple and stabilize the population by 2045. Other aims were promoting safe abortion, strong implementation of Prevention of Child Marriage Act and PC&PNDT Act. Rewarding people agreeing voluntarily for vasectomy, tubectomy and instituting a commission under PM to monitor the policy.

Despite help and incentives, India's population is increasing at a rate greater than the global average. Main factors are poverty, unemployment and low level of education and lack of awareness.

Low investments in the health sector, corruption and low avenues of livelihood have become obstacles in achieving the policy targets. Our stabilization target had to be readjusted to 2070 instead of 2045. IMR and MMR are not declining at expected rates. Population growth rate can be controlled despite these problems and removing obstacles by promoting participation, administrative efficiency and political farsightedness. 

Q17. "There is no sharp divide where an urban settlement stops and rural areas begin". Analyse the statement with reference to the sprawl of Indian cities. (CSE-2009)

Ans: There is no sharp divide between where an urban settlement stops and a rural area begins. For this kind of urban sprawl, the rural-urban fringe concept has been given by Pyror. R.J. Pyror postulated this concept in 1968. According to him it is a zone of transition between the continuously built up urban areas and the suburban areas of the central city and the rural hinterland. The rural-urban fringe has also been defined as the area of transition between well recognized urban land use and the areas devoted to agriculture. In the opinion of Blizard and Anderson, the rural urban fringe is that area of mixed urban and rural land use where full city services cease to exist and agricultural land use predominates.

In India the rural-urban fringe is an area of mixed rural and urban population which begins at the point where agricultural land use appears near the city and extends to the point where villages have distinct urban land uses or where some persons from the village community commute to the city daily for work. This area displays a changing mixed land use, social and demographic characteristics and is an area in which the large-scale urban amenities are located. In other words it is a transition zone between the city, its suburbs and countryside.

Following are some characteristics of rural-urban fringe: 

(i) Certain types of land use patterns such as garden centres, farm houses, golf courses, horse riding, and airports are found here. 

(ii) Agricultural land use in general is intensive and the arable land is devoted to perishable commodities eg-vegetables, fruits, flowers and dairy products. 

(iii) This Is also the place where residential and industrial estates are physically expanding. 

(iv) Here the size of land holdings and farms is small. 

(v) Social amenities are inadequate. 

(vi) Builders develop residential colonies here. 

(vii) This is also the place which is attracting mobile middle class residents. 

(viii)People living in the fringe areas commute daily to their place of work in the city. 

(ix) Itis also a problematic area from the point of view of administration. Because criminals escape to this area after committing crimes in the city.

However, the origin of the rural-urban fringe is a recent phenomenon around the Indian cities. The rural urban fringe was absent even around the largest metropolitan cities in India before 1950. During the British period, a number of villages around existing towns and cities were relocated in order to obtain space for the construction of cantonments. The city and town expansion throughout the British period was confined to the development of new cantonments and civil lines.But The post independence period has witnessed a radical transformation of urban scene. During this period, million plus cities began to grow rapidly. This rapid increase in the size of cities has led to urban encroachment in the rural areas. The villages in the periphery of the city are an easy target for urbanites.

This has resulted in the presence of urban land use within the rural areas surrounding the rapidly growing cities

The growth of industries, commerce, administration, institutions of learning, arts, health centres is generating jobs for the rural population. For those who want to continue with farming, rapidly growing cities are providing an expanding market for vegetables, fruits, milk etc. Thus, all this results in the emergence of a semiurban society transition between the rural and urban societies.

However, the delineation of the rural-urban fringe has been attempted by many of the urban geographers. The bases of their demarcation are:

Density of population, population growth in the preceding decades, Female per thousand males, outer limit of the city bus services or local trams.

This rural-urban fringe offers a greater challenge to urban planners. It is the area of rapid change in land utilisation and population characteristics. Rural-urban fringe in India is often characterized as the garbage and sewage dump of the city.

The fringe zone in recent times has been used for the relocation of slums from the city. For e.g. - In Delhi, Mumbai Kolkata etc. 

Q18. Describe the salient characteristics of the morphology of Indian cities. (CSE-2000) 


Explain the Morphology of Indian cities in the background of existing Morphological Models. (CSE-2006)

Ans: Urban morphology deals with the physical layout and internal function structure of an urban area. Here 'physical layout' means urban structure and may be termed as internal geography of the city. Similarly, functional morphology may be interchanged with urban land use. Various theories have been advanced by urban geographers to analyse the morphology of urban centre which are follows:

(I) Concentric Zone Theory: The concentric zone theory of urban land use was first proposed in 1923 by E.W. Burgess, an urban sociologist, in an attempt to explain the pattern of social areas within the city of Chicago. Burgess' model is based on the idea that the growth of a city takes place outward from its central area to form a series of concentric zones.

(II) The Sector Theory: The sector theory was proposed by H. Hoyt in 1939. Sector theory pattern of urban land use is conditioned by the arrangement of routes radiating out from the city centre creating a sectoral pattern of land and rental values which in turn influences the urban land-use pattern.

(III) The Multiple Nuclei Theory: In 1945 a less rigid model capable of application to a variety of urban patterns was proposed by C. D. Harris and E. L. Ullman. It was suggested that land use patterns in most large cities developed around a number of discrete centres or nuclei rather than a single centre.

Indian towns on the basis of their morphological characteristics may be classified under two broad categories: 

  1. Indigenous: These have fully Indian characteristics. Such towns are mainly distributed in the areas of northern plain, desert border land and Deccan Peninsula and have influence of South-West Asian culture in the form of narrow winding streets. 
  2. European Type: These include cantonments, civil lines, railway colonies etc, built during the British rule. The general morphology of the Indian cities was initially concentric in nature and was mostly affected by the physical characteristics of the site. During the British period with the development of new mohallas, market places and suburbs, it became sectoral. In certain port and capital cities it is multi-nuclei depicting the third stage of urban morphology development. 


The study of general functional structure and urban land use of Indian cities shows that there is an absence of clear separation between residential and other areas.


Internal Structure of Indian Cities: The postindepedence period in India saw rapid growth of large ~ size towns. This growth was characterised by the following features:


  1. Growth of residential colonies along radial rail-road arteries. 
  2. Absorption of suburbs by towns. 
  3. Growth of industries in the intervening spaces. 
  4. Conversion of old bungalows, built during the colonial period,into government offices and official residence. 
  5. Planned development of new residential colonies, industrial estates and satellite towns. 
  6. Growth of slums near city centres in areas which are generally low-lying and prone to flooding. These are also used as work - places. 


Thus an Indian city is an amalgamation of structures of various periods and of a variety of land-uses


Old Core of Indian Cities: This refers to an old fort, place of worship or, a place, around which a town generally grows. In India these are found to have the following features:


  1. There is an intricate maze of lanes and by-lanes often ending in dead ends. This traffic in the core is generally one-way. The buildings are mostly old ones with particular style or architecture but generally have courtyard, balconies, chhajjas. Some of these old buildings have been demolished to raise tall buildings. 
  2. The old core is fragmented on caste and community lines. 
  3. The old core generally shows a lack of lanes. 
  4. Some of the core areas have wholesale activities. Such cores are characterised by traffic jams and congestion. 
  5. The old cores also develop restaurants and hotels to accommodate the visiting business men.


Cantonments and Railway Colonies: These features also came up during the colonial period and have well planned rectangular street patterns as large open spaces in the form of race course and parade grounds and various services such as school! college, hospitals, post-office etc are available. In most cases, the contonments gave a separate identity.


Consequence of Rail Network: Another important stage in the process of urbanisation in India was the introduction of railway lines. As a consequence of this, the road from the station to the city centre gained importance. Shops and hotels came up along this road.


Around the suburban railway stations, housing clusters came up which were occupied mostly by migrants from outside. In the intervening spaces, industries, residential clusters or slums came up. 


Most Recent Developments: The rapid growth of suburban road transport has become a more extensive phenomenon than rail lines. Today, Indian towns are further classified as: 


Administrative Towns and Cities: Towns supporting administrative headquarters of higher order such as Chandigarh, New Delhi, Bhopal, Shillong etc. 


Industrial Towns: Industries constitute the prime motive force of these cities such as Mumbai, Salem, Coimbator, Modinagar, Jamshedpur, Hugli, Bhilai etc. 


Transport Cities: They may be ports primarily engaged in export and import such as Kandla, Kochi, Kozhikode, Mughal Sarai, Itarsi etc: 


Commercial Towns: Towns and cities specialising in trade and commerce are kept in this, like Kolkata, Saharanpur etc. 


Mining towns: Raniganj,[haria, Digboi,Singrauli etc. 


Cantonment towns: Ambala, Jalandhar, Mhow, Babina, Meerut etc. 


Educational towns: Roorkee, Varanasi, Aligarh, Pilani etc. 


Religious and Cultural towns: Varanasi, Mathura, Madurai, Tirupati etc. 


Tourist towns: Nainital, Mussoorie, Shimla, Pachmarhi, Mount Abu etc. 


Within each medium or large city there are specific areas specialising in certain functions or activities like business, industrial, administrative, institutional, transport, residential etc. Business area is often the core and centre of the city.