Island Groups of India
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Island Groups of India
India is a land of natural beauty and islands in India forms a significant part with well-encompassed by lush forests and possess the infinite variety of striking fauna and flora.
Island groups of India: An Introduction
The islands groups of India can be divided into two main groups:
- Andaman and Nicobar Archipelago (A chain of islands similar in origin) in Bay of Bengal.
- Lakshadweep islands in Arabian Sea.
1. Andaman and Nicobar Island:
- This archipelago is composed of 265 big and small islands.
- [203 Andaman islands + 62 Nicobar Islands].
Entire group of islands is categorized into two broad categories:
- The Andaman in the north
- The Nicobar in the south
- The Andaman islands are further divided into three main islands i.e. North, Middle and South Andaman.
- Duncan passage separates Little Andaman from South Andaman.
- Ten Degree Channel separates The Great Andaman group of islands in the north from the Nicobar group in the south.
- Port Blair, the capital of Andaman Nicobar Islands lies in the South Andaman.
- Most of these islands are made of tertiary sandstone and limestone.
- They are bigger in size and more numerous and scattered.
- The Barren Island is the only active volcano of India, situated in Andaman sea.
- Some of the islands are fringed with coral reefs. Many of them are covered with thick forests.
- Saddle peak (737 m) in North Andaman is the highest peak of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
2. Lakshadweep islands:
In the Arabian Sea, there are three types of islands.
- Amindivi Islands
- Laccadive Islands
- Minicoy Island.
At present these islands are collectively known as Lakshadweep.
- The Lakshadweep Islands are a group of 25 small islands.
- They are widely scattered about 200-500 km south-west of the Kerala coast.
- Amindivi Islands are the northernmost while the Minicoy island is the southernmost.
- Most of the islands are of coral origin (Atoll) and are surrounded by fringing reefs.
- The largest is the Minicoy island with an area of 4.53 sq km.
- Most of the islands have low elevation and do not rise more than five metre above sea level .
- The topography of these islands is flat and relief features such as hills, streams, valleys, etc. are absent.
Significance of Island groups:
- Great diversity of flora and fauna.
- Important fishing grounds.
- The forest in these islands has some good timber e.g. teak, mahogany, etc.
- Spices like cloves, cinnamon, cardamom, pepper, etc. are also cultivated here.
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