Indian Polity Chapter 1 MCQ: System of Governance
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Indian Polity Chapter 1 MCQ: System of Governance

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Indian Polity Chapter 1 MCQ: System of Governance 

Introduction of the Chapter

In this chapter tiers of government are explained. Brief introduction about central government, state government, and local government. The purpose of this chapter is concept clarity for students when anybody starts from scratch. First of all, he must know the structure of the system in which the entire democracy works. 

3 Levels of Government

  1. Government of the Union
  2. Government of the State
  3. Local Government

Theory of SoP(Separation of Powers)

Power of Government is divided into 3 wings, namely:

  1. Legislature
  2. Executive
  3. Judiciary

Legislature

  1. It comprises democratically elected representatives of the people.
  2. It is the law-making body, also known as Parliament.

Executive

  1. The Executive emerges out of the Legislature i.e. Parliament elects the Executive out of its members.
  2. It executes the law and conducts public and national affairs.

Judiciary

  1. The Judiciary is independent of Legislature and Executive.
  2. Its function is to keep a check over the other organs of the state (Legislature and Executive) and to maintain the supremacy of the constitution.  

Union Executive

It comprises

  1. The President
  2. The Vice-President
  3. The Prime Minister
  4. The Council of Ministers(Art. 74-75)
  5. Attorney General of India( Art. 76)

The President

  1. He is the head of the state and is democratically elected.
  2. Art. 52-73 deals with the President and Vice-President.

 Attorney General of India

  1. He is the first law officer of the Government of India.

Judiciary

  1. It consists of Supreme Court at the central level.

Parliament

It consists of:

  1. President
  2. Council of States( Rajya Sabha)
  3. House of the People( Lok Sabha)

Council of States(Rajya Sabha)

  1. It is the Upper House of the Parliament.
  2. It represents states of the Indian Union.
  3. It consists of 2 classes of members,
    1. Nominated members
    2. Elected members which are representatives of States and of 3 Union Territories
  4. The maximum strength of the house is 250, out of which 12 are nominated by President and 238 are elected members.

House of the People (Lok Sabha)

  1. It is the Lower House of Parliament.
  2. Also called as popular House of Parliament as its members are directly elected by the people.
  3. The maximum strength of this house can be 550, out of which 530 are from states, 20 from Union Territories.

Note: Before 25th January 2020, 2 members from the anglo Indian community had also been nominated by the President. Thus the maximum strength was 552.

The representation of Anglo Indians is discontinued by the 104 Constitutional Amendment Act.

  1. Governor is the head of the government of the state and is not elected but rather appointed by the President.
  2. State Judiciary consists of High Court.

State Executive

It consists of :

  1. Governor(Art. 153-162)
  2. Chief Minister
  3. Council of Ministers(Art. 163-164)
  4. Advocate General of State(Art. 165)
    1. He is the first law officer of the state.

State Legislature

  1. It consists of Governor and one or two houses.
  2. Legislature in the state is either bicameral ( consisting of 2 houses) or unicameral( consisting of 1 house called Legislative Assembly).
  3. Legislature in Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh is bicameral.

Legislative Councils (Vidhan Parishad)

  1. It is a permanent body, like Rajya Sabha. It is not subject to dissolution but after every 2 years, 1/3rd of its members retire.
  2. Its strength should not be less than 40 and shall not exceed 1/3rd of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of that State.

Legislative Assembly (Vidhan Sabha)

  1. Members of the Legislative Assembly are chosen directly by the people on basis of the adult franchise from territorial constituencies in the state.
  2. Its tenure is 5 years but can be dissolved by Governor before that.
  3. Its strength should not exceed 500 and should not be less than 60.
  1. By 73rd Amendment Act, the rural local government called Panchayati Raj Institutions came into existence.
  2. By 74th Amendment Act, urban local bodies called Municipalities came into existence.

 Panchayats

  1. Panchayati raj institutions follow 3 tier system at the village level, intermediate level, district levels. In states with a population of less than 20 lakhs, it is not mandatory to have the intermediate level.
  2. All members, at all levels, should be elected directly by the people from the territorial constituencies.

Municipalities

  1. Municipalities are of 3 types:
    1. Nagar Panchayat, for a transitional area that is an area that is being transferred from a rural area to an urban area.
    2. Municipal Council for a smaller urban area.
    3. Municipal Corporation for a larger urban area.
  2. Members are elected directly by the people from territorial constituencies.

Chapter: Systems of Governance (Test 1)

Q1. Which of the following is not true regarding Union Executive?

  1. It comprises only of President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers and Prime Minister
  2. It is the law-making body of our country
  3. Parliament elects the executive out of its members
  4. There is a separate Executive for the state and the center.

Select the correct answer

  1. 1 and 2       
  2. 1, 2 and 3
  3. Only 1 
  4. 1, 3 and 4 1,3, व 4 

Correct option is (a) 1 and 2.

Explanation:

Facts about Union Executive:

  • It comprises of President, Vice-President, Council of Ministers, Prime Minister, and Attorney General of India.
  • Parliament is the law-making body. The Executive is responsible for the execution of the laws.
  • Parliament elects the executive out of its members.
  • There is a separate executive for the union and the state.

Q2. Select the correct options regarding Local Government

  1. By the 73rd Amendment Act, Panchayats and Municipalities came into existence.
  2. Representatives are elected indirectly by people from their territorial constituencies. 
  3. Panchayats always follow 3 tier structure

Select the correct options:

  1. All are correct. 
  2. 1 and 2 
  3. Only 1
  4. All are incorrect. 

The correct option is (d) All are incorrect.

Explanation:

  • By the 73rd Amendment Act, Panchayats, and by 74th Amendment Act, Municipalities came into existence.
  • Representatives are elected directly (not indirectly) by people from their territorial constituencies.
  • Panchayats do not always follow 3 tier structure. In states with a population of less than 20 lakhs, it is not mandatory to have the intermediate level. 

 Q3. Which is true regarding State Legislature?

  1. It consists of Governor and Legislative Assembly only.
  2. Legislature in a state can be bicameral.
  3. Legislative Council (Vidhan Sabha) is a permanent body. 
  4. The strength of the legislative council shall not exceed one-third of the total number of members of the Legislative Assembly of the respective state./ 

Select the correct option:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 
  2. All of above 
  3. 2,3 and 4
  4. 2 and 4 

 The correct option is (d) 2 and 4

Explanation:

  • It consists of the Governor, Legislative Assembly, and Legislative Council (in case of bicameral Legislature).
  • Legislature in a state can be bicameral.
  • Legislative Council is a permanent body but it is known as Vidhan Parishad, not Vidhan Sabha.
  • Strength of legislative council shall not exceed one-third of the total number of members of Legislative Assembly of the respective state

 Q4. Which of the following is correctly matched with their max strength?

  1. Lok Sabha- 530 members
  2. Rajya Sabha- 250 members
  3. Legislative Assembly- 500 members

Select the correct answer from the below codes:

  1.  1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

 The correct option is (b) 2 and 3.

Explanation:

  • Lok Sabha has a maximum strength of 552 members.
  • Rajya Sabha has a maximum strength of 250 members.
  • Legislative Assembly has a maximum strength of 500 members

Q-5. Rajya Sabha consists of:

  1. elected members of States and Union territories.
  2. Both nominated and elected members of States and Union territories.
  3. Nominated members and elected members of States and 2 Union territories
  4. Nominated members of States 

   The correct option is (c).

Explanation:

  • It consists of 2 classes of members,
    • Nominated members.
    • Elected members which are representatives of States and of 2 Union Territories.

Q6. Consider the following statements:

  1. Legislature in Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh is bicameral.
  2. The strength of Legislative Councils should not be less than 40 and shall not exceed 1/3rd of total number of members of Legislative Assembly of that State.
  3. Legislative Councils are subject to dissolution.

  Which of the following statements is/are incorrect?

  1. 1 only               
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 2 only

Ans: (c) Statement 3 is incorrect. Legislative councils are permanent bodies, like Rajya Sabha. It is not subject to dissolution but after every 2 years, 1/3rd of its members retire.

Statement 1 and 2 are correct.

Q7. Consider the following statements:

  1. Nagar Panchayat is for a smaller urban area.
  2. Municipal Council is for a transitional area that is area that is being transferred from a rural area to an urban area.
  3. Municipal Corporation for a larger urban area.

    Which of the above statement(s) is/ are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2 only
  3. 3 only
  4. 1,2,3

Ans: (c) Statement 3 is correct. Municipal Corporation for a larger urban area.

Nagar Panchayat, for a transitional area that is an area that is being transferred from a rural area to an urban area.

Municipal Council for a smaller urban area.

Q8. Consider the following statements:

  1. Advocate General of a State is a constitutional office under Article 165.
  2. He is the first law officer of the State.

Which of the following option(s) is/ are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 and 2

Ans: (c) Both 1 and 2 are correct.

Q9. Consider the following statements:

  1. The Prime Minister is the head of the state.
  2. Article 75 provides that there shall be a President of India.
  3. The Parliament consists of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1,2,3
  4. None of these.

Ans: (d) None of the above statements are correct.

The President is the Head of the State. The PM is the head of the government.

Article 75 provides for a council of ministers.

The parliament consists of the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, and the President.

Q10. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to:

  1. The Parliament
  2. The Lok Sabha
  3. The President
  4. The Prime Minister

Ans: (b) The  Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha.