HCS mains syllabus for civil engineering paper

# HCS mains syllabus for civil engineering paper

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## HCS Syllabus: Civil Engineering HCS Mains Optional Syllabus

HPSC HCS mains optional subject syllabus

Part-I

1. Engineering Mechanics
Units and dimensions. SI Units. Vectors. Concept of force. Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane. Moment of force. Free body diagram. Conditions of equilibrium. Principle of virtual work. Equivalent force system. First and Second Moment of area. Mass moment of inertia. Static Friction, Inclined Plane and bearings. Kinematics and Kinetics. Motion under uniform and nonuniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of partice : Momentum and energy principles, collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies.

2. Strength of Materials
Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength. Strain Energy in direct stress, bending and shear.

Deflection of beams: Mecaulay‘s method, Mohr‘s Moment area method. Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of shafts, Elastic stability of columns, Euler‘s, Rankine‘s and Secant formulae. Principal stresses and strains in two dimensions, Mohr‘s Circle, Theories of Elastic Failure, thin and thick cylinders.

3. Structural Analysis
Castiglianio‘s theorems I and II, Unit load method, method of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection, moment distribution, indeterminate beams and rigid frames.

Rolling loads and Influences lines : Influences lines for shear force and bending moment at a section of a beam criteria for maximum shear force and bending moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses. Arches : Three hinged; rib shortening and temperature effects, influence lines in arches.

Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.

Plastic Analysis of beams and frames : Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical method, Mechanism method. Unsymmetrical bending: Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and Principal Axes, calculation of bending stresses.

4. Design of Structures
Structural steel: Factors of safety and load factors. Rivetted, bolted and welded joints and connections. Design of tension and compression members, beams of built up section, rivetted and welded plate girders, stancheons with battens and lacings.

Design of concrete and masonry structures. Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete: Working Stress and Limit State method of design - Recommendations of I.S. codes, design of one way and two way slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity, Isolated and combined footings. Cantilever and Counterfort type retaining walls. Prestressed Concrete: Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.

5. Fluid Mechanics

Fluid properties and their role fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces. Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow; Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational
and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions, flownet, methods of drawing flownet, flow separation,
free and forced votices. Control volume equation, continuity, momentum, energy and moment of momentum equations from control volume equation, Navier-Stokes equation, Euler‘s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, plane, curved, stationary and moving vanes, orifice meters and Venturi meters. Dimensional Analysis and Similitudes; Buckingham‘s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters, similitude theory.

Laminar Flow: Laminar flow between parallel, plates, flow through tube.
Boundary layer: Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sublayer, smooth and rough
boundaries.
Turbulent flow through pipes; Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe
friction factor, hydraulic grade line, and total energy line.

6. Open channel flow

Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific energy and specific
force, critical depth, flow in contractions, flow at sudden drop, hydraulic jump and its applications surges and waves, gradually varied flow, classification surface profiles, control section.

7. Geo-technical Engineering

Types of soil, phase relationships, consistency limits, particle size distribution, classification of soil, structure and clay mineralogy. Capillary water and structural water, effective stress and pore water pressure, Darey‘s Law, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits. Seepage pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi‘s theory one dimensional consolidation, consolidation test. Compaction of soil, field control of composition, Total stress and effective stress parameters, pore pressure coefficients. Shear strength of soils, Mohr Coulomb failure theory, Shear tests. Earth pressure at rest, active and passive pressures, Rankine‘s theory, Coulomb‘s theory, Coulomb‘s wedge theory, earth pressure on retaining wall. Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other important theories, net and gross bearing pressure. Immediate and consolidation settlement. Stability of slope, Total Stress and Effective Stress methods, Conventional methods of slices, stability number. Subsurface exploration, methods of boring, sampling, penetration tests. Essential features of foundation, types of foundation, design criteria, choice of type of foundation, stress distribution in soils, Boussinessq‘s theory, Newmarks‘ chart, pressure bulb, contact pressure, applicability of different bearing capacity theories, evaluation of bearing capacity from field tests, allowable bearing capacity, Settlement analysis, allowable steelement. Proportioning of footing, isolated and combined footings, rafts footing , Pile foundation, types of piles, pile capacity, static and dynamic analysis, design of pile groups, pile load test, settlement of piles, lateral capacity. Ground improvement techniques–preloading, sand drains, stone column, grouting, soil stabilisation.

Part-II

1. Construction technology
Engineering Materials

Physical properties of construction materials : Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, cement and Surkhi Mortars; Lime Concrete and Cement Concrete. Properties of freshly mixed and hardened concrete, Flooring Tiles, use of ferrocement, fiber-reinforced and polymer concrete, high strength concrete and light weight concrete. Timber; Properties and uses; defects in timber, seasoning and preservation of timber. Plastics, rubber and damp-proofing materials, termite profiting, Materials for Low cost housing. Construction: Building components and their functions; brick masonry; bonds; jointing; stone masonry. Design of brick masonry walls as per I.S. codes, factors of safety, plastering, pointing. Types of floors and roofs.

2. Constructions Equipment

Factors affecting the selection of equipment, study, capital and maintenance cost. Concreting Equipment: Weigh batcher, mixer, vibration, batching plant, concrete pump. Earth-work equipments: Power shovel, hoe, bulldozer, dumper, trailors and tractors, rollers, sheep foot roller.

3. Construction Planning and Management

Construction activity, schedules, job layout, bar charts, organization of contracting firms, newwork analysis; CPM and PERT analysis, Float Time, crashing of activities, contraction of network for cost optimization, cost analysis, floats, slack time, numbering of network, probability of completing the project.

4. Survey
Common methods of distance and angle measurements, compass traversing, plane table survey, levelling. travelling, traverse survey, triangulation survey, balancing of traverse, contouring, topographical map. Technometry. Circular and transition curves.

5. Transporation Engineering

Railways: Permanent way, sleepers, rail fasternings, ballast, points and crossings, design of turn outs, stations and yards, signals and interlocking, levelcrossing. Construction and maintenance of permanent ways ; Superelevation, creep of rail, ruling gradient, track resistance, tractive effort.

Highway Engineering: Principles of highway planning, Highway alignments. Geometrical design: Cross section, camber, superelevation, horizontal and vertical curves. Classification of roads; low cost roads flexible pavements, rigid pavements. Design of pavements and their construction. Drainage of roads : Surface and sub-surface drainage. Traffic Engineering: Forecasting techniques, origin and destination survey, highway capacity. Channelised
and unchannalised intersections, rotary design elements markings, signs, signals, street lighting; Traffic surveys.

6. Hydrology

Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, despression storage, infiltration, overland flow, hydrograph. Ground water flow: Specific yield, storage coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions, tube walls, pumping and recuperation tests ground water potential.

7. Irrigation Engineering

Water requirements of crops : consumptive-use, quality of water for irrigation, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies. Canals : Distribution systems for cannal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load, local and suspended load transport. Water logging: causes and control, drainage system design, salinity. Canal structures : Khosla‘s theory, energy dissipation, stilling basin, sediment excluders. Spillways : Spilway types, crest gates, energy dissipation. River training : Objectives of river training, methods of river training.

8. Environment Engineering

Water Supply: Estimation of surface and subsurface water resources, predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water. Intake of water: Pumping and gravity schemes, water treatment; principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; Slow- rapid- pressure filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity. Analysis of distribution systems.

Sewerage systems: Domestic and industrial wastes, store sewerage–separate and combined system, flow through sewers, design of sewers. Sewage characterisation: BOD, COD, solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land. Sewage treatment: Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge.