HCS mains syllabus agriculture optional paper
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HCS mains syllabus agriculture optional paper
HCS Syllabus: Agriculture HCS Mains Optional Syllabus
HPSC HCS mains optional subject syllabus
Concepts of multiple cropping, multistorey, relay and inter-cropping, and their importance in relation to food production. Package of practices for production of important cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibres, sugar, commercial and fodder crops grown during Kharif and Rabi seasons in different regions of the country. Extension, social forestry, and agro-forestry. Second generation problems of green revolution and approaches to solve these problems. Diversification and value addition in agricultural crops. W.T.O. and its impact on Indian agriculture. Sustainable agriculture.
Weeds, their characteristics, dissemination, and association with various crops; their multiplications; cultural, biological, and chemical control of weeds. Zero tillage.
Dryland agriculture and its problems. Technology for stabilising agriculture production in rainfed agriculture area. Water-use efficiency in relation to crop production, criteria for scheduling irrigations, ways and means of reducing run-off losses of irrigation water. Methods of irrigation and drainage. Drip and sprinkler irrigation. Drainage of water-logged soils. Soil-water-plant relationship.
Types of soils in India. Soil as medium of plant growth and its composition. Mineral and organic constituents of the soil and their role in maintaining soil productivity. Chemical, physical and microbiological properties of soil. Soil colloids. Essential plant nutrients (macro and micro) and their functions. Deficiency symptoms of plant nutrients. Mechanism of nutrient absorption. Problem soils –distribution and their reclamation. Principles of soil fertility. Organic manures and bio-fertilizers. Inorganic fertilizers (straight, complex and mixed). Integrated nutrient management. Losses of nitrogen in soil, nitrogen-use efficiency in submerged rice soils, nitrogen fixation in soils. Fixation of P and K in soil and scope for their efficient use.
Principles of economics as applied to agriculture. Farm management–scope, importance, characteristics. Farm planning and budgeting. Types and systems of farming and factors effecting them. Farm mechanization. Social marketing.
Philosophy, objectives, scope and principles of extension. Early extension efforts in India. Methods of communication. Evaluation of extension programmes. CD programmes. On farm testing and frontline demonstration.
Cell division. Nucleic acids–structure and function. Gene and chromosome. Laws of heredity, their significance in plant breeding. Chromosomal theory of inheritance. Cytoplasmic inheritance. Qualitative and quantitative characters.
Modes of reproduction. Selfing and crossing techniques. Application of principles of plant breeding to the improvement of major field crops. Methods of breeding of self and cross pollinated crops and vegetatively propagated crops. Plant introduction. Pureline selection and mass selection. Handling of hybrid populations–bulk, pedigree, backcross and single seed descent method. Hybrid vigour and its exploitation. Heterosis breeding. Male sterility and self incompatibility. Composites, synthetics and multiline varieties . Top cross and polycross. Apomixis. Clonal selections. Tissue culture. Interspecific and intergeneric hybridization. Breeding for disease resistance. Role of mutation and polyploidy in plant breeding. Seed production and certification.
Physiology and its significance in agriculture. Absorption and translocation of water, transpiration. Photosynthesis–modern concepts and factors affecting the process. Aerobic and anaerobic respiration. C3, C4, and CAM mechanisms. Photoperiodism and vernalization. Auxins, hormones and other plant regulators and importance in agriculture. Dormancy.
Climatic requirements and cultivation of major fruits plants, vegetable crops and flower plants; their package of practices with scientific basis. Post harvest handling and marketing problems of fruits, flowers and vegetables. Preservation of important fruits and vegetable products. Role of fruits and vegetables in human nutrition.
Diseases and pests of fields, vegetables and fruit crops of India and measures to control them. Causes and classification of plant diseases. Principles of plant disease control. Biological control of pests and diseases. Integrated pest and disease management. Storage pests of cereals and pulses, and their management.