HCS mains optional syllabus commerce and accountancy
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HCS mains optional syllabus commerce and accountancy

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HCS mains optional syllabus commerce and accountancy

HCS Syllabus: Commerce and Accountancy HCS Mains Optional Syllabus

HPSC HCS mains optional subject syllabus

Part-I: Accounting and Finance

1. Financing Accounting
Accounting as a financial information system. Impact of behavioural sciences. Advanced problems of company accounts. Amalgamations, absorption and reconstruction of companies. Valuation of shares and goodwill.

2. Cost Accounting
Nature and functions of cost accounting. Job costing. Process costing. Marginal costing. Techniques of segregating semivariable costs into fixed and variable costs. Cost-volume–profit relationship. Aid to decision making including pricing decisions, shutdown etc. Techniques of cost control and cost reduction. Budgetary control, flexible budgets. Standard costing and variance analysis. Responsibility accounting, investment, profit and cost centres.

3. Taxation
Definitions. Basis of charge. Incomes which do not form part of total income. Simple problems of computation of income under various heads, i.e. salaries, income from house property, profits and gains from business of profession, capital gains, income of other persons included in assessee‘s total income. Aggregation of income and set off/carry forward of loss. Deductions to be made in computing total income.

4. Auditing
Meaning and objects of auditing. Internal check and internal audit. Audit of cash transactions, expenses, incomes, purchases, sales. Valuation and verification of assets with special reference to fixed assets, stocks and debts.  Verification of liabilities. Audit of limited companies. Appointment, removal, powers, duties and liabilities of a company auditor. Auditor‘s report and qualifications therein. Board outlines of company audit with reference to share capital transactions and statutory report. Audit of Govt. Companies under sec. 619 of the Companies Act. Cost audit under sec. 233 (B) of the Companies Act. Special points in the audit of different organisations like clubs, hospitals, colleges, charitable societies.

5. Business Finance and Financial Institutions
Finance function. Nature, scope and objectives of financial management. Risk and return relationship. Financial analysis as a diagnostic tool. Management of working capital and its components. Forecasting working capital needs, inventory, debtors, cash and credit management. Investment decisions. Nature and scope of capital budgeting. Various types of decisions including make or buy and lease or buy. Techniques of appraisal and their application. Analysis of non-financial aspects. Rate of return on investments. Required rate of return. Its measurement. Cost of Capital. Weighted average cost. Different weights. Concept of valuation of firm‘s fixed income, securities and common stocks. Dividends and retention policy–residual. Actual practices. Capital structure,
leverages, significance of leverages, theories of capital structure. Planning the capital structure of a company. EBIT–
EPS Analysis Cashflow ability to service debt, capital structure ratios, other methods. Raising finance (short term and long terms). Bank finance (norms and conditions). Money markets. The purposes of money markets. Money markets in India. Organisation and working of capital markets in India. Organisation structure and role of financial institutions in India. Banks and investing institutions. National and international financial institutions. Supervision and regulation of banks. Monetary and credit policy of Reserve Bank of India. Provisions of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881 relating to crossings and endorsements with particular reference to statutory protection to the paying and collection bankers. Salient provision of the Banking Regulation Act, 1949 with regard to chartering,
supervision and regulation of banks.  

Part-II : Organisation Theory and Industrial Relations

1. Organisation Theory
Nature and concept of organisation. Organisation goals. Primary and secondary goals, single and multiple goals, ends means chain-displacement, succession, expansion and multiplication of goals. Formal organisation – type, structure, line and staff. Informal organisation–functions and limitations. Evolution of organisation theory: Classical, neoclassical and system approach. Organisation behaviour as a dynamic system. Technical, social and power system. Interrelations and interactions. Perception. Status system. Theoretical and empirical foundation of theories and models of motivation. Moral and productivity. Leadership. Theories and styles. Management of conflicts in organisations. Limits or rationality. Organisational change, adaptation, growth and development. Professional management Vs. family management. Organisation control and effectiveness.

2. Industrial Relations
Nature and scope of industrial relations the socio-economic setup, need for a positive approach. Industrial labour in India and its commitment–stages of commitments. Migratory nature–merits and shortcomings. Theories of Unionism. Trade Union movements in India–origin, growth and structure. Attitude an approach of management in India–recognition. Problems before Indian Trade Union movement. Sources of industrial disputes–Strikes and lockouts. Compulsory adjudication and collective bargaining–approaches. Workers participation in management–philosophy, rationale. The present-day state of affairs and future prospects. Prevention and settlement of industrial disputes in India. Industrial relations in public enterprises. Absenteeism and labour turnover in Indian industries– causes. Relative wages and wage differentials. Wage policy in India. The Bonus issue. International Labour Organisation and India. Role of the personal department in the organisation.