HCS mains chemistry optional syllabus Frontier IAS
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HCS mains chemistry optional syllabus
HCS Syllabus: Chemistry HCS Mains Optional Syllabus
HPSC HCS mains optional subject syllabus
1. Atomic Structure: Heisenberg‘s uncertainty principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent). Particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers. Shapes of s,p and d orbitals.
2. Chemical bonding: Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, factors affecting stability of ionic compounds, covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments. Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy. Molecular or bital theory (LCAO method); bonding in homonuclear molecules; H2, H2 to Ne2. Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.
3. Solid State: Bragg‘s law. X-ray diffraction by crystals. Close packing, radius ratio rules, Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCI,. Imperfections in crystals, Schottky and Frenkel defects, impurity defects, semi-conductors.
4. The Gaseous State: Equation of state for real gases, Maxwell‘s distribution of speeds.
5. Thermodynamics and Statistical Thermodynamics: Thermodynamics systems, states and processes, work, heat and internal energy first law of thermodynamics, work done in isothermal and adiabatic expanson and enthalpy changes in various processes.Hess‘s Law. Second law of Thermodynamics; Entropy of perfect gas in terms of volume, temperature and pressure. Nernst Heat theorem, Third law of Thermodynamics-its purpose, Plank‘s formulation, Statement of Lewis and Randall. Micro and macro states; canonical ensemble and canonical partition function; electronic, rotational and vibrational partition functions.
6. Clausius-Clapeyron equation, partial molar quantities, chemical potential and Gibbs–Duham equation, variation of chemical potential with temperature and pressure.
7. Electrode potential, Standard hydrogen electrode, Electoro–chemical series and its application in determining E.M.F. of cell and feasibility of a reaction, Nernst Equation.
8. Chemical Kinetics: Concentration dependence of rate of reaction –law of mass action and rate law expression ; order of reaction, integrated rate equations for first order reactions; effect of temperature on rate constant. Elementary idea about collisions and transition state theories and their comparison.
9. Photochemistry: Absorption of light; laws of photochemistry, quantum yield, decay of excited state by different routes; Fluorescence and phosphorescene.
10. Surface Phenomena and Catalysis: Adsorption from and solutions on solid adsorbents, adsorption isotherms–Langmuir and B.E.T. isotherms; determination of surface area by B.E.T.
11. Coordination Chemistry: IUPAC nomenclature, Isomerism and sterio-chemistry of complexes with coordination numbers four and six. Crystal field Theory, Factors effecting Crystal field splitting, John Teller effect .
12. Chemistry of d block elements: Transition metals including Lanthanides – General characteristic properties oxidation states, magnetic behaviour, colour etc. Lanthanide contractions, its cause and consequences.
1. (a) Reaction mechanisms: Kinetic versus Thermodynamic control, Hammond‘s Postulate, Method of determining reaction mechanism – isotope effect, solvent effect, catalysis and steric effect, Potential energy diagram transition state and Intermediates.
(b) Reactive intermediates: Structure and stability of carbocations, carbanians, carbenes and free radicals.
2. Substitution reactions: Nucleophilic substitution first order and second order (SNI and SN2) reactions, stereo-chemistry of these reactions and their comparison. Mechanism of Rearrangements: Pinacol–pinacolone, Beckmann, Claisen, Cope and fries rearrangement.
3. Chemistry and mechanism of reactions: Aldol condesation. Claisen condensation, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Wittig. Canizzaro and bonzoin condensations, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.
4. Polymeric Systems: (a) Physical chemistry of polymers :- number and weight average molecular weights of polymers. Determination of molecular weights by sedimentation, osmotic presure, viscosity. (b)Preparation and properties of polymers: Organic polymers–polythylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, Teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber.
5. Principles of spectroscopy and applications in structure elucidation: (a) Rotational spectra–diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants. (b) Vibrational spectra–diatomic molecule; linear triatomic molecules. (c) Electronic spectra:– Singlet and triplet states, n?*? and ???* transitions; application to conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls– Woodward–Fieser rules. (d) Nuclear magnetic resonance : chemical shift and coupling constants; Application of H NMR to simple organic molecules.