HCS mains botany optional paper syllabus Frontier IAS
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HCS mains botany optional paper syllabus Frontier IAS

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HCS mains botany optional paper syllabus

HCS Syllabus: Botany HCS Mains Optional Syllabus

HPSC HCS mains optional subject syllabus 

Part - I
1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology

Main features that characterize microbes. Bacteria : Structure and modes of nutrition and reproduction. Role of bacteria in agriculture, forestry, industry and medicine. Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry and medicine.Nature, structure of TMV and bacteriophage. Classification of plant diseases on the basis of causal organisms and symptoms. Modes of infection and dissemination. Symptoms, causal organisms and control of lateblight of potato, black-stem rust of wheat, red-rot of sugarcane, citrus canker and Bhindi Mosaic Virus.

2. Cryptogams

Algae: Economic importance of alage. Vegetative and reproductive features of Nostoc, Volvox, Ulothrix and Batrachospermum. Fungi : Economic importance of fungi. Vegetative and reproductive features of Phytophthora, Penicillium, Agaricus, Puccinia and Collectorichum. General account of Lichens.

3. Bryophytes

Main morphological features (excluding developmental details) of Marchantia and Funaria.

4. Pteriodophytes

Morphological features (excluding developmental details) of Selaginella and Pteris. Heterospory, seed habit and its significance in Selaginells.

5. Gymnosperms

Characteristic features of sporophytes and gametophytes of Cycas and Pinus.

6. Phytogeography

Concept and significance of various floristic regions of India. Endemism and endemic plants of India.

7. Systematics

Concept and basis of species, genera and families. Bentham and Hooker‘s classification–its basis, merits and demerits. Diagnostic floral features of Compositae, Cruciferae, Graminae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae and Solanaceae.

8. Anatomy

Anatomical features of monocot and dicot roots and shoots. Secondary growth in roots and shoots. Anomalous secondary growth in Boerhaavia and Dracaena.

9. Embryology

Structure and morphology of anther, pollen and embryo sac (polygonum type). Structure of mature monocot
and dicot embryo and seed.

10. Economic Botany

Morphological and economic utility of the edible parts of wheat, rice, maize, sugar-cane, groundnut, gram, beans, potato, tomato, onion, banana, apple, fig and mango. Morphological nature and economic utility of coriandrum, turmeric, ginger, cardamom & cinchona. Medicinal utility of opium, Atropa, Azadirachta, Rauwolfia and Cannabis.

                                                                                 Part - II

1. Cytogenetics

Basic differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Physical and chemical structure of higher plant chromosomes. Mendelism and principles of segregation and independent assortment. Gene interactions– complementary, supplimentary, inhibitory, epistasis. Sex linked genes and their inheritance pattern. Sex determination in lower and higher plants. Male sterility – concept, gene-control and use. Extra chromosomal inheritance. Mutations–Concept, types (spontaneous and induced, macro and micro–mutations) and their role in evolution and crop improvement. Polyploidy–concept, types (Allo-, auto-, eu- and aneuploidy) and role in plant evolution. Mechanism of DNA transcription and RNA translation. Gene regulation as revealed by Lac-operon Modern concept about gene structure and function. 

2. Plant Breeding and Biostatistics

Methods of breeding–introduction, selection, hybridization and backcrossing. Heterosis and use in crop breeding. Malesterility. Use of apomixis in plant breeding. Transgenic crops. Brief idea about mean, mode median, standard deviation, standard error and correlations (bivariate only). Coefficient of variation (CV). Test of significance (t, chi square)

3. Physiology and Biochemistry

Ascent of sap. Transpiration. Role of light in carbon fixation and photosynthesis. Carbon fixation in C3, C4, CAM plants. Photorespiration. Mechanism and significance of respiration (aerobic and anaerobic). Nitrogen fixation and its genetic control. Role of micro-nutrients in plant nutrition. Role of growth regulators (auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins) in plant development, differentiation and development. Physiology of dormancy and seed germination. Photoperiodism and vernalization.

4. Plant Ecology

Environment and its factors (biotic, climatic, edaphic and physiographic) which influence plant growth and development. Ecosystem– Structure and function. A brief account of food chain, ecological pyramids, energy flow,
pollution, acid-rain, global-warming. Biodiversity–concept, definition, depletion and conservation. Endangered and
the threatened plants, extinction and biosphere reserves.

5. Applied Botany

Cell, organ and tissue culture– procedure and utility. Protoplast–isolation and culture (a brief account). Recombinant DNA technology– methods to produce DNA and its utility in plants. In-vitro gene transfer– agrobacterium mediated gene transfer , direct gene transfer by electroporation, microinjection and biolistic methods (brief accounts only). Utility of transgenic plants in agriculture, horticulture and forestery.