HCS Topic Wise Question Series: Biology-I
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HCS Topic Wise Question Series: Biology-I

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Biology Multiple Choice Questions For HCS Exam

Haryana Civil Services Exam 2020

Important 20000 MCQ Series For HCS Exam: BIOLOGY PART-I

Q1. Name the gland that controls the functioning of other endocrine glands.

(a) Pancreas

(b) Pituitary gland

(c) Pineal gland 

(d) Adrenal gland 

Ans. (b) Pituitary gland

Explanation: The hormones of the pituitary gland help regulate the functions of other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland has two parts—the anterior lobe and posterior lobe -that have two very separate functions. The hypothalamus sends signals to the pituitary to release or inhibit pituitary hormone production.

Pancreas - It produces insulin and other important enzymes and hormones that help break down foods. The pancreas has an endocrine function because it releases juices directly into the bloodstream, and it has an exocrine function because it releases juices into ducts.

Pineal gland - The pineal gland is a small, pea-shaped gland in the brain. Researchers do know that it produces and regulates some hormones, including melatonin. Melatonin is best known for the role it plays in regulating sleep patterns.

Adrenal gland - The adrenal glands produce hormones that help the body control blood sugar, burn protein and fat, react to stressors like a major illness or injury, and regulate blood pressure. Two of the most important adrenal hormones are cortiAns and aldosterone.

Q2. Which cells in our body are popularly called "Ansdiers of the human body"?

(a) Eosinophils

(b) White blood cells

(c) Red blood cells 

(d) Basophils 

Ans. (b) White blood cells

Explanation: White blood cells:  provide immunity to our body. They help in fighting against diseases, infections, allergies and foreign particles. These cells keep our body safe and healthy, much like the Ansdiers of a nation.

Eosinophils: are a type of disease-fighting white blood cells. This condition most often indicates a parasitic infection, an allergic reaction or cancer.

Red blood cells: at work Hemoglobin is the protein inside red blood cells. It carries oxygen. Red blood cells also remove carbon dioxide from your body, transporting it to the lungs for you to exhale. Red blood cells are made in the bone marrow. They typically live for about 120 days, and then they die.

Basophils: are a type of white blood cell. Although they're produced in the bone marrow, they're found in many tissues throughout your body. They're part of your immune system and play a role in its proper function. If your basophil level is low, it may be due to a severe allergic reaction.

Q3. Which hormone leads to the expulsion of milk from the breast during suckling? 

(a) Estrogen

(b) Oxytocin

(c) Prolactin

(d) Progesterone

Ans. (c) Prolactin

Explanation: Prolactin (PRL): also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk. It is influential in over 300 separate processes in various vertebrates, including humans.

Oxytocin: is normally produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary. It plays a role in social bonding, sexual reproduction, childbirth, and the period after childbirth.

Estrogens: are hormones that are important for sexual and reproductive development, mainly in women. They are also referred to as female sex hormones.

Progesterone: is an endogenous steroid and progestogen sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of humans and other species. 

Q4. Which of the following is a communicable disease?

(a) Measles

(b) Scurvy

(c) Asthma 

(d) Diabetes 

Ans. (a) Measles

Explanation: Measles: is a communicable disease.Measles is a childhood infection caused by a virus. Once quite common, measles can now almost always be prevented with a vaccine. Also called rubeola, measles can be serious and even fatal for small children.

Scurvy: a disease resulting from a lack of vitamin C (ascorbic acid).

Asthma: is a condition in which your airways narrow and swell and produce extra mucus. This can make breathing difficult and trigger coughing, wheezing and shortness of 

Q5. Which of the following has the highest protein content per gram?

(a) Apple

(b) Soyabean 

(c) Wheat

(d) Groundnut

Ans. (b) Soyabean

Explanation: Soybeans: derive about 35 to 38 percent of their calories from protein compared to approximately 20 to 30 percent in other legumes. 

Apples: are extremely rich in important antioxidants, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. 

Wheat: is rich in carbohydrates.

Groundnut: are abundant in the vitamins niacin, folate, pantothenic acid, thiamin, riboflavin, choline, Vitamin B6 and Vitamin E and rich in minerals like magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, iron, copper, manganese and selenium. Disease control.

Q6. _____ is a scientific discipline concerned with the study of plant pollen, sopres, and certain microscopic planktonic organisms, in both living and fossil form. 

(a) Paleobotany   

(b) Ethnobotany 

(c) Dendrology 

(d) Palynology

Ans. (d) Palynology 

Explanation: Palynology is the study of pollen grains and other spores, especially as found in archaeological or geological deposits. Pollen extracted from such deposits may be used for radiocarbon dating and for studying past climates and environments by identifying plants then growing. 

Paleobotany is the study of fossil plants.

Ethnobotany is the scientific study of the traditional knowledge and customs of a people concerning plants and their medical, religious, and other uses.

Dendrology is the study of trees.

Q7. ____is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians.

(a) Herpetology  

(b) Ethology 

(c) Mammalogy 

(d)   Morphology 

Ans. (a) Herpetology

Explanation: Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians and reptiles. 

Ethology the science of animal behaviour. It is the study of human behaviour and social organization from a biological perspective.

Mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems.

Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. It is a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or taxon and its component parts.

Q8. _____is the study of the microanatomy of cells, tissues and organs as seen through a microscope.  

(a) Paleontology  

(b) Histology 

(c) Ichthyology 

(d) Entomology 

Ans. (b) Histology

Explanation: Histology, also known as microscopic anatomy or microanatomy, is the branch of biology which studies the microscopic anatomy of biological tissues. Histology is the microscopic counterpart to gross anatomy which looks at larger structures visible without a microscope.

Paleontology is the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments.

Ichthyology, also known as fish science, is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. This includes bony fish, cartilaginous fish, and jawless fish.

Entomology is the study of insects and their relationship to humans, the environment, and other organisms.

Q9. During photosynthesis, green plants use energy from sunlight to synthesize ____________ with carbon dioxide and water.

(a) Sucrose      

(b) Glucose 

(c) galactose

(d) fructose  

Ans. (b) Glucose

Explanation: Plants use energy from sunlight to turn water and carbon dioxide into an energy rich sugar called glucose. This process is called photosynthesis, which means “making things with light”. Photosynthesis takes place inside capsules in the leaf cells, called CHLOROPLASTS.

Q10. Which of the following is NOT a symptom of Wilson's disease?

(a) Problems with speech, swallowing or physical coordination

(b) Uncontrolled movements or muscle stiffness 

(c) Fluid build-up in the legs or abdomen 

(d) Night blindness 

Ans. (d) Night blindness 

Explanation: Night blindness (nyctalopia) is the inability to see well at night or in poor light. Its causes include glaucoma medications and cataracts.

Q11. Which of the following acid found in Apple? 

(a) Malic Acid   

(b) Nitric Acid

(c) Formic Acid 

(d) Sulphuric Acid 

Ans. (a) Malic Acid 

Explanation: Malic acid is a naturally occurring substance found in many fruits and vegetables, and is largely responsible for the sour taste found in apples and pears. It is also used as a food additive and a supplement, and has many health benefits

Q12. Bariatric surgery brings changes in a person's __________.

(a) Heart

(b) nasal passage 

(c) Lungs

(d) Digestive System

Ans. (d) Digestive System

Explanation: Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by restricting the amount of food the stomach can hold, causing malabsorption of nutrients, or by a combination of both gastric restriction and malabsorption. Bariatric procedures also often cause hormonal changes. Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery).

The most common bariatric surgery procedures are gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, adjustable gastric band, and biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. 

Q13. A deficiency of ____________ is a disease of rickets.

(a) Vitamin C     

(b) Vitamin A 

(c) Vitamin B

(d) Vitamin D 

Ans. (d) Vitamin D 

Explanation: Rickets is a skeletal disorder that's caused by a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. These nutrients are important for the development of strong, healthy bones. People with rickets may have weak and soft bones, stunted growth, and, in severe cases, skeletal deformities.

Q14. What is Marble Cancer?

(a) Disease in animals due to marble mines

(b) Soil degradation due to marble mines 

(c) Cancer in humans due to working in mines

(d) Corrosion of marble due to acid rain

Ans. (d) Corrosion of marble due to acid rain

Explanation: The marble cancer refers to the corrosion of buildings and statues made up of marbles by action of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. The SO 2 and NOx present in pollution get deposited on these buildings. These oxides absorb moisture from the air and get converted into respective acids and cause corrosion.

Q15. Which of the following gases reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood? 

(a) Nitric oxide  

(b) Carbon dioxide 

(c) Carbon Monoxide 

(d) Nitrous oxide

Ans. (c) Carbon Monoxide 

Explanation: The gas that reduces the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen is CARBON MONOXIDE. It gets deposited in the haemoglobin of Red Blood Cells (RBCs) and prevent proper oxygen carrying capacity.

Q16. Pollination by birds is called 

(a) anemophily  

(b) entomophily 

(c) autogamy 

(d) ornithophily 

Ans. (d) ornithophily

Explanation: Ornithophily or bird pollination is the pollination of flowering plants by birds.

Q17. Who won the Nobel Prize in 1906 for his neuron doctrine?

(a) Pierre Curie    

(b) Santiago Ramón y Cajal 

(c) Henry Moseley 

(d) Luis Alvarez 

Ans. (b) Santiago Ramón y Cajal

Explanation: The neuron doctrine is the concept that the nervous system is made up of discrete individual cells, a discovery due to decisive neuro-anatomical work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal. The term neuron was coined by Waldeyer as a way of identifying the cells in question. The neuron doctrine, as it became known, served to position neurons as special cases under the broader cell theory evolved some decades earlier. He appropriated the concept not from his own research but from the disparate observation of the histological work of Albert von Kölliker, Camillo Golgi, Franz Nissl, Santiago Ramón y Cajal, Auguste Forel and others.

Q18. The deficiency of which nutrient causes night blindness? 

(a) Vitamin K   

(b) Vitamin C 

(c) Proteins

(d) Vitamin A 

Ans. (c)

Q19. What is the popular name of “ Ascorbic Acid”? 

(a) Vitamin A   

(b) Vitamin B12

(c) Vitamin K 

(d) Vitamin C

Ans. (d) Vitamin C

Explanation: Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid is a vitamin found in various foods and And as a dietary supplement. It is used to prevent and treat scurvy. Vitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue. It is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. It also functions as an antioxidant.

Q20. Which of the following is a vestigial organ? 

(a) Heart

(b) Kidney 

(c) Lungs 

(d) Appendix 

Ans. (d) Appendix

Explanation: Vestigial organs are organs of the body which are smaller and simpler than those in related species. They have lost, or almost lost their original function. The appendix is probably the most widely known vestigial human organ.

Q21. What is the definition for the term ‘ Hibernation’? 

(a) A state of hyperactivity in spring time among birds.

(b) Building of habitat (nests) by birds to save themselves during the rainy season.

(c) A state of reduced metabolic activity during winter season among some animals.

(d) A habit of food conservation during summer season for winters among animals.

Ans. (c) A state of reduced metabolic activity during winter season among some animals.

Explanation: Hibernation is a deep sleep that helps them to save energy and survive the winter without eating much. During hibernation the animal's body temperature drops, and its heartbeat and its breathing slow down so that it does not use much energy. Animals that hibernate include polar bear, bats , rodents etc.

Q22. Which of the following is the third stage in the metamorphosis of a butterfly? 

(a) Egg

(b) Pupa 

(c) Adult

(d) Larva 

Ans. (b) Pupa

Explanation: All butterflies have "complete metamorphosis." To grow into an adult they go through 4 stages: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Each stage has a different goal - for instance, caterpillars need to eat a lot, and adults need to reproduce.

Q23. Which of the following plant is Carnivorous? 

(a) Cyprus Vine   

(b) Venus Flytrap 

(c) Amaryllis  

(d) Hyacinth 

Ans. (b) Venus Flytrap

Explanation: The Venus flytrap is a carnivorous plant native to subtropical wetlands on the East Coast of the United States in North Carolina and South Carolina.

Q24. How many ‘canine teeth’ does an adult human have?   

(a) 8

(b) 4

(c) 3

(d) 2

Ans. (b) 4

Explanation: A normal adult mouth has 32 teeth, which (except for wisdom teeth) have erupted by about age 13: Incisors (8 total): The middlemost four teeth on the upper and lower jaws. Canines (4 total): The pointed teeth just outside the incisors. Premolars (8 total): Teeth between the canines and molars.

Q25. Which scientist discovered ‘Penicillin’?

(a) Louis Pasteur

(b) Alexander Fleming 

(c) Robert Koch 

(d) Emst Chain 

Ans. (b) Alexander Fleming

Explanation: Antibiotics are compounds produced by bacteria and fungi which are capable of killing, or inhibiting, competing for microbial species. It was an accidental discovery by Alexander Fleming in 1928.  

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