HCS Exam: MCQ Series Geography-II
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HCS Exam: MCQ Series Geography-II

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Geography Multiple Choice Questions For HCS Exam

Haryana Civil Services Exam 2020

Important 20000 MCQ Series For HCS Exam: GEOGRAPHY Part-ii

Q.1. Which of the following is/are not characteristics of El Nino?

(a) Increased surface pressure over the Indian Ocean, Australia, and Indonesia

(b) Rise in warm air near Peru

(c) Fall in air pressure over eastern and central Pacific ocean and Tahiti

(d) Below-average sea surface temperatures across the east-central Equatorial Pacific

Ans:: (d) Below-average sea surface temperatures across the east-central Equatorial Pacific

Explanation: El-Nino is a narrow warm current that occasionally appears of the coast of Peru which temporarily replaces the cold Peru current. The warming of tropical Pacific waters affects the global pattern of pressure-wind systems including the monsoon winds in the Indian Ocean. La-Nina is the reverse phenomenon of El-Nino. Below-average sea surface temperatures across the east-central Equatorial Pacific is a characteristic of La Nina.

Q.2.Which of the following are causes of the eruption of a volcano?

1. Due to diverging or converging tectonic plates

2. Ascent of magma due to pressure from gases and vapour

3. Decrease in pressure of Magma as it rises up towards the crust

4. Injection of a new batch of magma into an already filled magma chamber

(a) 1,2

(b) 1,3

(c) 1, 2,3

(d) All

Ans: (d) All

Explanation: A volcano is a vent or opening through which heated materials consisting of gases, liquid lava, fragments of rocks are ejected from the highly heated interior to the surface of the Earth. It can happen along with the converging or diverging Lithospheric plates.

Q.3.Please consider the following statements and chose which one is true? 

1.Solar radiation that is intercepted by the Earth is called Insolation.

2.Insolation is lowest near the Equator and highest near poles

3.Albedo is an essential process for the survival of life on Earth.

4.Except long term climatic changes, Earth’s temperature remains constant. This process is called Heat Budget.

(a)1 and 2

(b)1,2,3

(c)2,3,4

(d)1,3,4

Ans: (d) 1,3,4

Explanation: The amount of insolation is highest near Equators as the region received the highest amount of heat and sunlight and lowest near poles as the region receives the lowest amount of sunlight.

Q.4. Insolation depends upon the following factors

1.The area and nature of the surface

2.The inclination of the surface towards the Sun

3.The transparency of Atmosphere and Length of the day

4.Distance between the Earth and the Sun

(a) 1 and 3

(b)1,2,3

(c)2,3,4

(d)All

Ans: (d) All

Q.5. Consider the following statements about the structure of the sun:

1. The core of the Sun has the highest temperature and pressure among all layers.

2.The solar energy is produced in the core by a controlled nuclear fission process.

3.Photosphere is the first visible layer of the sun.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2 only

(b) 1 and 3 only

(c)  2 and 3 only

(d)  All of the statements

Answer: (b) 1 and 3 only

Explanation: The core of the sun:

The core of the Sun has the highest temperature and pressure among all layers. (statement 1 is correct)

The temperature of the core is around 15 million degree Celsius – is in ionized state called plasma

Solar energy is produced in the core by a controlled nuclear fusion process. (statement 2 Is incorrect)

The high temperature in the core helps in removing the electrons from hydrogen atoms and in creating numerous electrons and protons for nuclear fusion.

Photosphere: This is the first visible layer of the Sun. The temperature here is around 6000 degrees Kelvin (5370 degrees Celsius). The solar spots are formed on this layer. The temperature of a solar spot is around 4500 degrees. (statement 3 is correct)

Q.6. Which of the following are east-flowing rivers?

1. Mahi 

2. Cauvery 

3. Sabarmati

4. Krishna

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 and 4

(c) 1,2,3

(d) 1,3,4

Ans : (b) 2 and 4

Explanation: 

Mahanadi, Cauvery, Godavari, Krishna are East flowing rivers

Narmada, Mahi Sabarmati are west-flowing rivers

MCQ For HCS Exam: Geography-I

Q.7. Consider the following statements

1. The discontinuity between the Upper and lower crust is termed as the Conrad Discontinuity.

2. The discontinuity between the crust and mantle is called the Mohorovich Discontinuity or Moho discontinuity.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 2 both

(d) None

Ans: (c) 1 and 2 both   

Explanation:: Both the statements are correct.

Q.8. Which of the following depicts ‘Bolide’?

(a)A celestial body bigger than 10 m orbiting the Sun, mainly between Mars and Jupiter. Made of rock and metal.

(b)It is a small rock or particle of debris in our solar system. They range in size from dust to around 10 meters in diameter.

(c)A fireball that explodes during its atmospheric flight, often with visible fragmentation.                             

(d)A very bright meteor.

Answer: (c) A fireball that explodes during its atmospheric flight, often with visible fragmentation

Explanation: Fireball:: A very bright meteor (brighter than the planet Venus).

Q.9. Consider the following statements about Mantle: 

1. The uppermost solid part of the mantle and the entire crust constitutes the Lithosphere.

2. It is composed mainly of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni).

3. It constitutes nearly 15% of the earth’s volume.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 2 only

(c) 2 and 3 only

(d) All

Answer: (a) 1 only

Statement 2 and 3 describe the Core of the earth, not the mantle. Hence 2 and 3 are INCORRECT.

The portion of the interior beyond the crust is called the mantle.

The mantle is about 2900 kms in thickness.

Nearly 84% of the earth’s volume and 67% of the earth’s mass is occupied by the mantle.

The major constituent elements of the mantle are Silicon and Magnesium and hence it is also termed SIMA

The uppermost solid part of the mantle and the entire crust constitutes the Lithosphere.

Q.10. Consider the following statements regarding Earthquakes:

1. The point within the earth’s crust where an earthquake originates is called the epicenter.

2. The secondary waves (earthquake waves) are slower than primary waves and can pass only through solid materials.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 2 both

(d) None

Answer: (b) 2 only

Explanation: Earthquake waves are basically of two types – body waves and surface waves.

They are generated due to the release of energy at the focus and moves in all directions traveling through the body of the earth. Hence, the name – body waves. There are two types of body waves as primary waves and secondary waves.

Primary waves are the fastest body waves (twice the speed of surface waves) and are the first to reach during an earthquake.

They are similar to sound waves, i.e, they are longitudinal waves, in which particle movement is in the same direction of wave propagation.

Q.11. Consider the following processes

1. Frost Action

2. Temperature Changes

3. Solution 

4. Repeated wetting and drying 

Which of the above process  depicts Physical or Mechanical Weathering:

(a)1 and 4 only

(b)2 and 3 only

(c)1, 2, and 4 only

(d)All

Answer: (c) 1, 2, and 4 only

Explanation: Physical or Mechanical Weathering: Repeated Temperature Changes: In deserts, rocks are exposed to the blazing sun during the day and are intensely heated. The outer layers expand much faster than the cooler interior of the rocks and tend to pull away from the rest. At nightfall, the temperature drops rapidly and the outer layers contract more rapidly than the interior, setting up internal stresses. Such stresses, repeated every day for months and years cause the rocks to crack and split. Well bedded and jointed rocks tend to split along the joints and cracks, breaking up into rectangular blocks. In crystalline rocks such as granite, the crystals of the various minerals (quartz, mica, feldspar) will expand and contract at different rates, enhancing the stresses and accelerating the disintegration of the rocks. Stresses and pressures will naturally be greatest near the surface and where there are sharp angles in the rocks.

Q.12. Consider the following statements

1. Seismometers are the instruments that are used to measure the motion of the ground

2. The recorded graphical output from a seismometer is known as a seismograph.

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)1 and 2 both

(d)None

Answer: (a) 1 only

Measuring earthquakes: Seismometers are the instruments that are used to measure the motion of the ground, including those of seismic waves generated by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other seismic sources. (Statement 1 is correct)

A Seismograph is also another term used to mean seismometer though it is more applicable to the older instruments.

The recorded graphical output from a seismometer/seismograph is called a seismogram. (statement 2 is incorrect)

Q.13. Which of the following is true about Pir Panjal pass?

1. It connects the Kashmir valley to central Asia

2. It connects Jammu and Srinagar 

3. It connects Shimla to Tibet

4. It signifies the entry of the Brahmaputra River to India 

Ans: (b) It connects Jammu and Srinagar

Q.14.River Capture’ is associated with which of the following stage of the river? 

(a) Youth

(b) Maturity

(c) Old

(d) All of the above

Answer: (a) Youth 

Explanation: River Capture

Also known as river piracy or river beheading

Associated with the young stage of the river.

Its development depends upon the different rates of back cutting (headward erosion) into a divide mainly due to differences in precipitation received by streams.

If one side of the divide cut more rapidly than the other then its greater erosive power will succeed in enlarging its basin at the expense of a weaker stream.

The bend at which the piracy occurs is termed as Elbow of the capture & the beheaded stream is called a misfit.

The valley below the elbow is a wind gap that may be useful for road & rail routes.

Q.15. Which is the junction points of Eastern Ghats and Western ghats?

(a)Nilgiri Hills

(b)Cardamom Hills

(c)Palkonda Hills

(d)Palani Hills 

Ans: (a) Nilgiri Hills

Q.16. What is solifluction?

(a) It is particularly common where permeable debris or rock layers overlie impermeable strata such as clay.

(b) Earthquakes or volcanic disturbances may loosen rocks and start off solifluction.

(c) It is most common in damp soils where the water acts as a lubricant so that individual soil particles move over each other and over the underlying rock.

(d) When the soil is completely saturated with water the individual particles are almost suspended in the water and move easily over one another.

Answer: (d)

Explanation: Soil Flow ( Solifluction): When the soil is completely saturated with water the individual particles are almost suspended in the water and move easily over one another and over the underlying rock. The soil acts like a liquid and a soil-flow or mud-flow occurs. In Ireland, such flows are known as ‘Bog-Bursts’.

Q.17. Consider the following statements about ‘D-fjord’:

1. steep-sided narrow entrance-like feature at the coast where the stream meets the coast.

2. Fjords are common in Norway, Greenland, and New Zealand

Which of the above statement(s) is/are correct?

(a) 1 only

(b)2 only

(c)1 and 2 both

(d)None

Ans: (c)

Self Explanatory

Q.18. Which plateau lies between Aravali and Vindhyachal hills?

(a)Chhota Nagpur plateau

(b)Deccan Plateau

(c)Malwa Plateau

(d)Marwar Plateau

Ans: (c) Malwa Plateau

Q.19. Consider the following statements:

1. Hollow basin cut into a mountain ridge.

2. It has a steep-sided slope on three sides, an open end on one side, and a flat bottom.

3. When the ice melts, it may develop into a tarn lake.

The above statements depict which of the following?

(a) Corrie

(b) Glacial trough

(c) Hanging valley

(d) Arête

Answer: (a)  Corrie

Cirque/Corrie:

Hollow basin cut into a mountain ridge.

It has a steep-sided slope on three sides, an open end on one side, and a flat bottom.

When the ice melts, the cirque may develop into a tarn lake.

Q.20. The porous gravel ridden plains at the foothills of Shiwalik is known as::  

(a) Khadar

(b) Bhabar

(c) Bhangar

(d) Terai 

Ans : (b) Bhabar

Bhangar:: Old Alluvium

Khadar:: New Alluvium

Terai:: Thick forest Area where Bhabar streams reappear

Q.21. Consider the following statements regarding Entrenched meanders

(a) They are asymmetrical & form when river down cuts at a less rapid pace.

(b) They give the river an opportunity to erode laterally as well as vertically.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a)1 only

(b)2 only

(c)1 and 2 both

(d)None

Answer: (d) None

Explanation:  Entrenched meanders are symmetrical & form when the river down cuts particularly quickly due to the speed at which the river down cuts, there is little opportunity for lateral erosion to occur giving them symmetrical shape.

Ingrown meanders are asymmetrical & form when the river down cuts at a less rapid pace and gives river the opportunity to erode laterally + vertically.

Q.22. Consider the following statements regarding the equatorial low-pressure belt:

1. The equatorial low-pressure belt extends from the equator to 10 degrees N and 10 degree S latitudes.

2. The equatorial low-pressure belt is called doldrums (the zone of calm) due to excessive heating horizontal movement of air is absent here and only conventional currents are there.

Which of the above statements is/are correct? 

(a) 2 only

(b) 1 only

(c) 1 and 2

(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Ans : (c)

Explanation: The sun shines almost vertically on the equator throughout the year. As a result, the air gets warm and rises over the equatorial region, and produce equatorial low pressure. This belt extends from the equator to 10 degrees N and 10 degree S latitudes. Due to excessive heating horizontal movement of air is absent here and only conventional currents are there. Therefore this belt is called doldrums (the zone of calm) due to the virtual absence of surface winds. These are the regions of convergence because the winds flowing from subtropical high-pressure belts converge here. 

Q.23. Consider the following statements regarding the air temperature and the air pressure on various regions on earth: 

1. Air pressure is low in equatorial regions and it is higher in Polar Regions.

2. There is an inverse relationship between air temperature and air pressure.

3. Low air pressure in equatorial regions is due to the fact that hot air ascends there with a gradual decrease in temperature causing thinness of air on the surface.

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

(a) 2 only

(b) 1 and 3

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 1, 2 and 3

Ans: (d) 1, 2 and 3

Explanation:: The earth is not heated uniformly because of the unequal distribution of insolation, differential heating and cooling of land and water surfaces. Generally, there is an inverse relationship between air temperature and air pressure. The higher the air temperature, the lower is the air pressure. The fundamental rule about gases is that when they are heated, they become less dense and expand in volume and rise. Hence, air pressure is low in equatorial regions and it is higher in polar regions.

Q.24. Which of the following are the left bank tributaries of Ganga?

(a) Gomti, Kali, Kosi, Son

(b) Yamuna,Mahanadi,Gandhak

(c) Ramganga,Kosi,Mahanadi 

(d) Yamuna , Son

Ans : (c) Ramganga,Kosi,Mahanadi

Explanation: Son and Yamuna are right bank tributaries of ganga.

Q25. Which of the following is false about the largest riverine island in the world?

1. Majuli Island is the largest riverine island listed in the Guinness Book of World Records.

2. Majuli Island is  formed by the river Ganga

3. It is in the state of West Bengal.

4. It is Mainly populated by Tribals.

(a) 1 only

(b) 1 and 3

(c) 2 and 3

(d) 2,3,4

Ans : (c) 2 and 3

Explanation::

The island is situated in Assam. It is formed by the river Brahmaputra

The Island is mainly populated by the indigenous tribal communities.

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