Economics Of Animal Rearing
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Economics Of Animal Rearing
Why in the news?
Recently, the Prime Minister launched the National Animal Disease Control Programme, to control and eradicate the Foot & Mouth Disease (FMD) and Brucellosis amongst the livestock in the country.
National Animal Disease Control Programme(NADCP)::
Fully funded central Govt. scheme which aims
To vaccinate over 600 million cattle in the country
To aim at vaccinating 36 million female bovine calves annually
To control the livestock diseases by 2025, and eradicate by 2030.
The livestock that will be covered under the program includes cattle, buffalo, sheep, goats, and pigs
Animal husbandry is an integral component of Indian agriculture, supporting the livelihood of almost 55% of the rural population.
India is the highest livestock owner in the world.
Animal rearing is aimed at making the livestock useful for human beings for a variety of purposes, many of which have an economic value. Therefore, it has a big potential for providing non-farm employment and income in rural areas.
Significance of Animal Rearing
Humans depend upon animals for income, employment, food, social security, fuel (biogas&biodiesels), farm manure, and a variety of other reasons.
Mixed farming(crop-livestock) system provides income security to a large population.
Provides Nutritional security and diversification complemented with animal protein sources like milk, meat, egg, and fish, etc.
Provides self-employment to millions.
Contributes to the empowerment of women and their role in society.
Fiber production like silk & wool.
India’s Position in the world
India ranks 1st in exports of buffalo trade, ranks 2nd in cattle wealth production,3rd in the global population of sheep, and 5th in the global population of chickens and ducks.
India’s livestock sector is one of the largest in the world. It has 56.7% of world’s buffaloes, 12.5% cattle, 20.4% small ruminants, 2.4% camel, 1.4% equine, 1.5% pigs and 3.1% poultry.
Constraints of livestock development:
The incapability of central and state governments to deliver the promised and expected results.
Challenges and failure of Policy formulation and implementation.
Ineffective control of animal diseases, poor medical facilities, and lack of skilled health professionals.
Inefficient system of supply chain management system and storage facility for Livestock products.
Absence of field-oriented conservation strategy for indigenous breeds.
Lack of coordination among various agencies engaged in livestock husbandry.
Lack of adequate fodder production and storage.
Adherence to old methods and non-adoption of modern technology.
Lack of skills and quality services to farmers for improving productivity.
Lack of encouragement, promotion, and support from Govt.
Lack of proper credit facility
Measures to Promote Livestock Sector:
Increasing commercialization of livestock products by improving technologies, increasing market connectivity, processing and storage center, training, etc.
Making provision for adequate availability of quality fodder.
Targeting a significant portion of cultivable land for growing fodder crops.
By setting up a consortium with National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) to fund the dairy cooperatives.
Keeping a disaster management fund for livestock in case of natural calamities.
Crossbreeding of indigenous species with exotic stocks to enhance the genetic potential of different species.
Encouraging Public-Private Partnership for sustainable livestock rearing.
Creating scope and infrastructure for research and development.
Provision for insurance against losses, credit facility, and subsidies.
Encouraging institutionalized private investment for mass production and quality enhancement.
Animal waste procurement, processing, and formalized manure production and marketing
Important Govt. Initiatives
Rashtriya Gokul Mission
To develop and conserve indigenous breeds of the bovine population.
To enhance milk production and to make it more remunerative to the farmers.
National Livestock Mission
To ensure quantitative and qualitative improvement in livestock production systems and capacity building of all stakeholders.
National Artificial Insemination Programme
To suggest novel methods of bringing about impregnation in female breeds
To prevent the spread of certain diseases which are genital in nature, thereby enhancing the efficiency of the breed.
National Cattle and Buffalo Breeding Project
To genetically upgrade important indigenous breeds on a priority basis with a focus on development and conservation.
Animal Husbandry Startup Grand Challenge
To appreciate innovations coming from the villages to expand the dairy sector in India.
Contribution of dairy cooperatives like AMUL to make India the largest milk-producing country in the world.
It emphasizes on fish production and aquaculture. The restructured scheme is being called Integrated Development and Management of Fisheries.
This is one of the most underrated, unexplored, and disorganized sectors in agriculture. If it is given proper attention, it can prove to be instrumental to achieve the target of doubling farmers’ income at the earliest.
If implied with utmost priority, the sector can attract the landless and small farmers to take advantage of sustaining their livelihood and make India competent in the global market.