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Cybersecurity means securing cyberspace from attack, damage, misuse, and economic espionage.
Cyberspace is a global domain within the information environment consisting of interdependent IT infrastructure such as the Internet, Telecom networks, computer systems, etc.
Types Of Cyber Threats
Cyber Warfare: states attacking the information systems of other countries for espionage and for disrupting their critical infrastructure.
Phishing: It is a kind of fraudulent attempt that is made through email, to capture personal and financial information.
Cyber Stalking: repeated use of electronic communications to harass or frighten someone.
Identity theft: It is a type of fraud in which a person pretends to be someone else and does crime with the name of someone else.
Denial of service (DoS): This refers to an attempt to make computer, server, or network resources unavailable to its authorized users usually by using temporary interruption or suspension of services.
Need for cybersecurity in the current scenario:
Govt.’s push to transform India into a digital economy and superpower has prompted a larger number of citizens, companies, and government agencies to transact online.
Information technology industry boom in India
The increasing number of internet users and online financial transactions are making citizens vulnerable to cyber attacks.
Lack of awareness among citizens about cybersecurity and possible threats.
Poor and less advanced cybersecurity infrastructure compared to developed countries.
India the fifth most vulnerable country in the world in terms of cybersecurity breaches.
Digital illiteracy of Indian citizens about safety measures and ethical internet behavior.
Most of the critical digital platforms like the Banking sector are using old technology. Hence they are more susceptible to digital crimes.
Nonuniform standards of various devices make it difficult to provide standardized security protocols.
Lack of adequate security infrastructure and trained staff.
Lack of coordination among various agencies working for cybersecurity.
The private sector, despite being a major stakeholder in cyberspace, has not been involved proactively for the security of the same.
Rapidly evolving technology in cyberspace and difficulty in establishing a foolproof cybersecurity architecture because of the number of vulnerable points in the overall ecosystem.
Measures are taken so far::
Cyber-diplomacy: India has entered into cybersecurity collaborations with countries such as the USA, European Union, and Malaysia.
Global Conference on Cyber Space (GCCS): A prestigious global event where international leaders, policymakers, industry experts, think tanks, cyber wizards, etc. gather to deliberate on issues and challenges for optimally using cyberspace.
Global Centre for Cybersecurity: It was launched by the World Economic Forum (WEF) to serve as a laboratory and early-warning think tank for future cybersecurity scenarios and help build secure global cyberspace.
Budapest Convention on cybercrime: This convention of the council of Europe is the only binding international instrument on this issue that addresses Internet and computer crime by harmonizing national laws, improving legal authorities for investigative techniques, and increasing cooperation among nations. The Convention has 56 members, including the US and the UK. India is not yet a member.
Measures were taken by the Indian govt.:
National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC) to battle cybersecurity threats in strategic areas such as air control, nuclear, and space.
The national cyber coordination center
(NCCC) to scan internet traffic coming into the country and provide real-time situational awareness and alert various security agencies.
A new Cyber and Information Security(CIS) Division has been created to tackle internet crimes such as cyber threats, child pornography, and online stalking.
Defense Cyber Agency Ministry of Defence has created this to realm defense cybersecurity.
Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-in) to enhance the security of India’s Communications and Information Infrastructure through proactive action and effective collaboration.
Cyber Surakshit Bharat Initiative to strengthen the Cybersecurity ecosystem in India. It is the first public-private partnership of its kind and will leverage the expertise of the IT industry in cybersecurity.
Information Technology Act, 2000 (amended in 2008) to provide a legal framework for transactions carried out using electronic data interchange, for data access for cybersecurity, etc.
Some of the prominent provisions are:
Section 43: Data protection
Section 66: Hacking
Section 69: Cyberterrorism
National Cyber Security Policy 2013: Under these various initiatives have been proposed to enhance and strengthen cybersecurity.
National Cybersecurity Coordinator (NCC) may be strengthened to bring about much-needed synergy among various institutions.
Both defensive and offensive measures must be taken to cause cybercrime deterrence.
Better regulation and adoption of new updated technology to strengthen the cybersecurity framework.
Encouraging investment in the cybersecurity sector.
Skill development and preparation of a world-class workforce for the prevention of cybercrime.
Security Audit adhering to international standards may be made applicable to all govt. websites, applications before hosting, and publishing.
Coordination with state Govts and Establishing a cybersecurity framework at the state level.
Enhanced international cooperation for information sharing and prevention of cybercrime worldwide.
Reducing the vulnerability of all internet users by spreading awareness about the consequences of negligence and ignorance.