Civil Service Mains Exam: Geology Optional Paper-2 (2019)
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Civil Service Mains Exam: Geology Optional Paper-2 (2019)

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Civil Service Mains Exam: Geology Optional Paper-2 (2019)

Marks-250                                                                                                                        Time: Three Hours

SECTION-A

1. (a) What are the principles of Miller Indices and Hermann Maugin notation for a crystal face ? Calculate Miller Indices of a crystal face which intersects a-axis at 2 unit distance, b-axis at 3 unit distance and is parallel to c-axis. 10 Marks

1. (b) What are 'porphyritic' and 'vitrophyric' textures ? Describe with the help of suitable sketches. Comment on petrogenetic significance of vitrophyric texture. 10 Marks

1. (c) Define 'partial melting'. Discuss the role of partial melting in magma generation. 10 Marks

1. (d) Define thermodynamic phase rule and state its mathematical expression. Determine the degree of freedom for a system under equilibrium with 8 components and 5 mineral phases. Briefly discuss the principle of ACF diagram. 10 Marks

1. (e) What are ripple marks ? Describe the different types of ripple marks and their geological significance. 10 Marks

2. (a) What is interference figure? What are the conditions required for the formation of erence figures for uniaxial minerals. Draw optic axis for uniaxial negative and positive crystals.  20 marks

2. (b) Discuss classification, composition and structure of pyroxene group of minerals. Comment upon optical properties and occurrence of hypersthene. 20 Marks

2. (c) Describe using projection diagram various crystal-forms developed in the normal class of tetragonal system. 10 Marks

3. (a) Explain using phase rule the binary eutectic nature of diopside-anorthite system. Comment upon textures produced during crystallization of basaltic magmas rich in diopside and anorthite components. 10 marks

3. (b) What is the characteristic mineralogy and chemistry of alkaline rocks ? Discuss tectonic magmatic setting and magma generation of alkaline rocks. 20 marks

3. (c) What is the concept of 'facies' and 'grade' in metamorphism? Discuss important facies associations in regionally and thermally metamorphosed rock. 20 marks

4. (a) Define heavy minerals. Describe the different methods of their separation and comment on the utility of heavy mineral suite in provenance determination. 20  marks

4. (b) What are conglomerates ? Describe their classification and geological significance.  20 marks

4. (c) Discuss the fabric, composition and geological significance of arkose. 10 marks

SECTION-B

5. (a) Discuss various forms and structures associated with hydrothermal sulphide deposit. Comment upon sequence of mineral formation in Singhbhum sulphide deposit. 10 Marks

5. (b) Discuss quality criteria used for limestone and gypsum in cement industry. Comment upon distribution of cement grade limestone in Vindhyan basin. 10 marks

5. (c) 

10 marks

5.(d) Discuss significance of meteorite in cosmochemistry. 10 marks

5.(e) How is groundwater of coastal areas contaminated by seawater intrusion and comment on its mitigation.10 marks

6.(a) Discuss distribution, mode of occurrence, mineralogy and genesis of Precambrian Iron ore deposits of India. 20 marks

6.(b) What is refractory material ? Discuss geology, mode of occurrence and origin of refractory minerals of South India.  20 marks

6.(c) Give distribution of petroliferous basins in India. Discuss geology of oil-fields of Assam basin. 10 marks

7.(a) Enumerate different types of mining methods. Discuss in detail coal mining methods.  20 marks

7.(b) Describe mineralogy and genesis of rock phosphate or phosphorite deposits of India. Comment upon its grade used in the fertilizer industry.  20 marks

7.(c) Discuss various types of modifiers' and their role in the froth flotation process. 10 marks

8.(a) What are general characteristics of 'lanthanides'? Why is Rare Earth Element (REE) abundances in a rock expressed with the help of chondrite normalized diagram? What is petrogenetic significance of 'Ce' and 'Eu' anomaly? 20 marks

8.(b) Define ‘isomorphism' and 'polymorphism' with suitable examples. What are different types of polymorphism? 10 marks

8.(c) What are different types of radioactive waste forms ? How are they disposed in geological repository? 20 marks