HCS exam I Geological history of India I Geography

HCS exam I Geological history of India I Geography
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HCS exam I Geological history of India I Geography

HCS exam I Geological history of India I Geography

HCS exam I Geological history of India I Geography

In this article we have discussed geological history of India.  To understand it in a better way you should watch video and solve MCQ on this.  Join HCS online coaching course for complete preparation.  Watch this video for details of the course.

 

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  • The present physical form of Indian subcontinent is the result of vast geological formation.
  • In 1912 a German meteorologist named Alfred Wegener (1880 -1931) hypothesized a single proto-supercontinent named pangea that divided up into the continents.
  • Pangaea, therefore, means “all the Earth.” Around the single protocontinent or Pangaea was a single ocean called Panthalassa (all the sea).
  • In contrast to the present Earth and its distribution of continental mass, much of Pangaea was in the Southern hemisphere .
  • Pangea started to breakup into two smaller supercontinents, called Laurasia and Gondwanaland separated by Tethys Sea, during the late Triassic era, the first period of the Mesozoic Era which occurred between 251 million and 199 million years ago and also known as the “Age of Reptiles
    • By the end of Cretaceous period, the continents were separating into land masses that look like our modern day continents.

 

  • 150 million years ago, Indian Plate broke from Gondwana land and started its journey towards North.

 

  • Later, India broke up from Madagascar and started its journey towards Eurasian Plate.

Collision of Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate

  • India’s northward movement resulted into collision between Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate
  • After lateral movements between plates, Himalaya mountain originated.

Geological divisions of India

India can be geologically divided into 3 parts:

  1. Peninsular Plateau
  2. Himalayan Ranges
  3. Indo- Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain

Peninsular Plateau

  • It has been a stable shield which has gone through little structural changes since its formation.
  • Though, Peninsular Plateau is an aggregation of several smaller plateaus, hill ranges interspersed with river basins and valleys but can be broadly divided into two parts:

 

  • Central Highland
  • Deccan Plateau

 

 

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