- Correct option is (b) 1, 2 and 3
Facts about Harappan Civilisation:
- It is known as urban civilisation because of well organised buildings, roads, drainage system.
- Double burial found in Lothal (Gujarat) indicates that Indus valley people believes in life after death. This is because, when a person is dead, his/her pet is also buried along with the owner.
- The division of city into two parts- upper and lower where upper is protected by a citadel. Upper city is inhabited by aristocrats while lower city is inhabited by workers which shows a clear division of classes.
- Indus valley civilisation is known for its excellent drainage system which is presently lacked in many metro cities. The usage of cesspits at regular intervals so that they can be cleaned regularly.
2. Correct option is (c) 1, 3 and 4
- In the entire Indus valley civilisation, there are no evidences that stones are used for building any house or structure.
- Sun baked bricks are generally used for the construction while burnt bricks are specially used in great bath, lothal and underground drainage.
- The baked bricks are joined using gypsum cement and mud mortar.
- The evidence of mud mortar is evidently found at Harappa.
- As wood is available plentily, the bricks are easily baked; wood is also used for windows and doors.
3. Correct option is (c) It is the part of their culture showing the importance of ritual cleansing.
- Mohenjo Daro, an indus valley site which is located on Indus river is mainly known for “Great Bath” due to its vast size.
- People generally bath in “public baths” for ritualistic cleansing as it was their part of culture.
- There are rooms and galleries around these public baths for women to change their dresses.
- Most of the buildings have private bathrooms and wells in their own houses.
- Although public baths have excellent drainage system, people don’t bath in public baths for this reason and hence the last statement is incorrect.
4. Correct option is (a) 1, 3 and 4
|Harappa||Nude dancing girl of stone, bronze scale, granaries|
|Mohanjadaro||Nude dancing girl of bronze, great bath, multi-pillared hall, steatite bust of a bearded man|
|dholavira||Water reservoir, stadium, unique water harnessing system|
|lothal||Ship seal, artificial dockyard, double burial, fire altar|
|Banawali||Barley grains, city with radial streets, toy plough|
|Ropar||Dog buried with owner.|
5. Correct option is (b)
- In harappan civilisation, ornaments are mainly made of shells, silver, gold and some precious stones.
- While some ornaments are worn by both women and men, earrings, girdles and anklets are worn only by women.
- Harappans mainly used cotton and wool for fabrics and are unaware of silk. There are evidences that mesopotamian civilisation has imported cotton (sindon) from indus valley civilisation.
- During mauryan period, wood was the only construction material and hence used widely in all the structures.
- India’s national emblem is the replica of Sarnath capital of Ashoka but with some changes like “satyameva jayathe” in devanagari script and only horse and bull are found on national emblem while elephant and lion are also found on sarnath pillar.